The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits

retold by Richard L. Dieterle


The following is an account of the experiences of a man who was blessed by Buffalo Spirits.


A man fasted for a long time. Finally a spirit from the south sought him out. This spirit appeared before him as a man, and said, "Human I have come for you." So the twain set out on foot and soon came to a village where they entered a long lodge. In this lodge he was blessed, and the first to bless him was the chief of the village. The spirit chief said, "Human, I bless you with victory. When you are on the warpath and you are about to rush at the enemy, do not forget me. Pour me tobacco before the battle and you will escape unharmed, for I control matters of war." Then he told him, "Look there at yourself. Thus will your life be." And when he looked he saw himself as a white-haired old man. He was to be one who attained full life. Then the spirit said, "All of us here in this lodge bless you. This village to which you have come, it is the spirit village of the Buffalo." Then as he looked at the people gathered there, unexpectedly, they all became buffalo. "To bless you is why we sent after you," he said. "Human, if anyone is weighted with life, and a proper offering of tobacco is given, then you will be able to do what you now see before you." At that moment there unfolded before him a scene. There was a lodge, and in the center of the lodge was a dead man. All about him tried their powers, but none could revive him. Finally, they told the man to try his powers, so he stepped forward. As he did so, everyone in the lodge began to make sound. Then he exerted himself to the utmost, and as he did so, he sang Buffalo Songs. When he was done with singing, he approach the dead man. He blew upon him once, then twice, then thrice. Suddenly, the dead man opened his eyes. The man blew on him yet again, and the man who had once been dead, now rose up among the living. The Buffalo Chief said, "Human, you have transcended us all! Thus you shall ever do for people. When sickness strikes and people offer you what is fitting, and you pour tobacco for our council lodge, then I shall not forget you. You shall send us all the tobacco that they offer you. For this I shall remember you. This lodge shall stand to the end of your posterity. Whatever you and yours shall request, we shall not fail to grant it as we smoke the tobacco offerings. And whenever a kettle is offered to us, we shall not forget to bless them that sent it. Earthmaker has given to us the power over wars, and this power is yours to have for the asking. Any of you who ask for life, we shall accept your offerings and grant your blessing."

Then they blessed him with medicine plants. Each spirit in turned caused him to see before him a plant, and the spirit put in him the knowledge of its use. They told him that if he made offerings to the plants before the feast, they would increase their power for him. Then they produced a drum and it was holy. "This is the drum that you will sound to send us your wishes. It shall speak to us. This is a sacred drum and must be kept holy. When you are on the warpath, you must take it with you — it will preserve and protect you. The enemy will fall before you. The weapons of your descendants will be sharp for so long as they observe and keep this ritual. For as long as it lasts, there is no blessing we will not bestow upon you. And this too we charge you to do: you shall make a flute with your own hands, and we shall make it sacred." Thus they spoke. Then the Buffalo Chief told him that he must make a warbundle. It would contain the flute as well as the head and tail of a buffalo. With this the people would be caused to offer the Buffalo Spirits tobacco. And so they do even to this day. Then he was blessed by four special Buffalo Spirits: one was white, another black; the third was red and the last yellow.

A second time the man fasted and the spirits from above came for him. They took him to the abode of a Buffalo Spirit. The spirit spoke to him, saying, "Earthmaker has placed me here and given me control over many things. Grandson, I bless you. When you go forth on the warpath, forget me not. A pipe of tobacco to me before battle, and the enemy shall shoot but your shadow. Indeed, your very body I shall take up to myself, and there shall be left only a shadow for them to strike." Thus he spoke. Thereafter, whenever he went on the warpath the enemy could not kill him. How could they? for without a body there is no death. Then the Buffalo Spirit spoke again: "Earthmaker also gave me control over life. This life of yours I have, and I give it back to you that you yourself may control it. The spirits have given you a tobacco offering feast, and so long as you remember me in it and make offerings in my name, I shall not forget you. I shall accept the tobacco offered to me always, and the kettle that you put on the fire in my memory; and you shall be blessed in war and in life as you will." In this way he spoke to him.

Even with these many blessings, the man went on fasting. Once again the spirits came for him. In the middle of the earth lived a buffalo-ghost [spirit], and to him they took the man. This spirit also blessed him, saying, "Earthmaker has given me control over many things, and I shall also bless you. Raise up your eyes, human, and look at me." When he did, he saw that the spirit was covered with flattened bullets. "Thus you will be too," he said. "No enemy will be able to kill you, and you will live on to old age. And when you have tired of life, you may do as you will, for I give you control over your own life. Then the spirit taught him a holy song. And as he stood there a vision appeared before him: a wampum belt, a prize of war. Then the Buffalo Spirit spoke: "I will always accept your offerings at the feasts, and will take whatever kettle you place on the fire for me. Whenever people ask for war powers, I shall consider it, for such powers have been given over to me." Thus he spoke, and the man received all with which he had been blessed.

All these blessings came to pass as the man lived out his life. One day he went out on a warparty. As they were walking along, an enemy warrior sprang up and pointed a gun at him. The man jump left and right in zigzag, and caused him to miss. Then the enemy rushed him and grabbed him by the arm to take him captive, but the man blessed by the Buffalo Spirits seized the enemy and slammed him against a sharp object twice, tearing out his stomach. Then he fell back, but thought to himself, why didn't I finish him off? So he went back to kill him, but the man managed to raise his gun and take aim. The man came upon his prostrate foe, and thinking that he had spent his ammunition, made no attempt to dodge the bullet. Thus he was shot. Indeed, his chest was drilled repeatedly, and he fell down dead. Soon he arose form the dead, bellowing like a buffalo bull. He remembered what the buffalo-ghost had said, and he recalled his blessings. When his stomach filled with blood, he vomited it up and felt restored. A relative of his came along and asked him, "How has it fared with you this day?" "Look there," he replied, "I have killed one of them. Scalp him for me." So the relative took the enemy's scalp and brought it to the man. There too was the fallen man's horse, and this the relative led away as well. As they returned to camp, they met the warleader. The warleader asked him, "How did it fare for you today?" Right then and there the man handed him the horse and scalp, saying, "I give you the prizes of war." "It is good!" he said, and placed a wampum belt on him. Then the warleader sang a sacred song and dashed back into the fray. Mindful of his blessings from the Buffalo Spirits, the man followed right behind. However, he was shot to pieces; yet he did not die. How could he? for he had been blessed with holy power. Thus it came to pass that the wampum belt of his dream had now come to fulfillment, the bullets flattened on it as they were on the belt of the buffalo-ghost.

He went on to many warpaths, but not once was he injured. At his hand the sick received Life. In time he made the sacred warbundle of his fasting dream. He made his flute and bound it with a buffalo head and tail. Then he made offerings to it, for it had been made holy. Since then buffalo feasts have been given.1


Commentary. Given the last line, which I repeat verbatim, it appears that this was in part originally a story about the origin of the Buffalo Feast. The story has two layers. The first is betrayed by the expression that the initial events happened long ago. The second is a modernized extension in which guns replace the traditional bows and arrows.

The appearance in the latter story of the "buffalo-ghost" is a puzzle, as animal ghosts are not usually encountered. Perhaps "ghost" is just a translation for waxop'ini, "spirit." The theory of animal life and death pictures a perpetual cycle from spirit to flesh and after death, back to spirit again. To speak of a "ghost" would suggest some other scheme.


Links: Earthmaker, Buffalo Spirits.


Stories: about buffaloes and Buffalo Spirits: Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Fisher, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, Bluehorn's Nephews, Redhorn's Father, The Woman who became an Ant, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Buffalo's Walk, Trickster's Buffalo Hunt, The Blessing of Šokeboka, The Creation of the World (v. 3), The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Red Feather, Wazųka, Holy One and His Brother, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse; about fasting blessings: Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Difficult Blessing, The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Seer, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Great Walker's Medicine, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, Holy Song, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Blessing of Šokeboka, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Sweetened Drink Song, Ancient Blessing; mentioning Warbundles: Waruǧápara (Thunderbird), The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons (Thunderbird), Redhorn's Sons (Thunderbird), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Thunderbird), The Warbundle of the Eight Generations (Thunderbird), Wanihéga Becomes a Sak’į (Thunderbird), Šųgepaga (Eagle), The Warbundle Maker (Eagle), The Masaxe War (Eagle?), The Blessing of a Bear Clansman (Bear), Paint Medicine Origin Myth (Hit’énųk’e Paint), The Blessing of Kerexųsaka (Sauk), Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon, Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store (Potawatomi), A Man's Revenge (enemy); mentioning flutes: The Love Blessing, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Partridge's Older Brother, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Fox-Hočąk War (v. 1), Redhorn's Sons; mentioning drums: The Descent of the Drum, The Buffalo's Walk, The Spirit of Maple Bluff, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), Young Man Gambles Often, Trickster and the Dancers, Redhorn's Father, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Elk's Skull, Ghosts, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Great Walker's Medicine, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 1b), Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Trickster and the Geese, Turtle's Warparty, Snowshoe Strings, Ocean Duck, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Hog's Adventures, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts; about famous Hočąk warriors and warleaders: How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, The Masaxe War (Hogimasąga), Wazųka, Great Walker's Warpath (Great Walker), Great Walker's Medicine (Great Walker, Smoke Walker, Dog Head, Small Snake), Šųgepaga (Dog Head), The Warbundle Maker (Dog Head), The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara (Smoke Walker, Dog Head, Small Snake), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Big Thunder, Čap’ósgaga), The Osage Massacre (Big Thunder, Čap’ósgaga), The Fox-Hočąk War (Čap’ósgaga), The Origin of Big Canoe's Name, White Thunder's Warpath, Four Legs, The Man who Fought against Forty (Mąčosepka), Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon, The Hills of La Crosse (Yellow Thunder), Fighting Retreat, Mitchell Red Cloud, jr. Wins the Medal of Honor (Mitchell Red Cloud, jr.), How Jarrot Got His Name, They Owe a Bullet (Pawnee Shooter); mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Creation Council, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Fourth Universe, Šųgepaga, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Redhorn's Sons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow, The Origin of the Cliff Swallow; mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́čĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed).


Themes: a person who fasts receives blessings from the spirits: The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, Redhorn's Sons, The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Seer, Maize Comes to the Hočągara, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Thunderbird, Lake Wąkšikhomįgra (Mendota): the Origin of Its Name, The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound, Great Walker's MedicineŠųgepaga, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, Heną́ga and Star Girl, A Man's Revenge, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Man who Defied Disease Giver, White Thunder's Warpath, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Diving Contest, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Holy Song, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Blessing of Šokeboka, The Completion Song Origin, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, Sunset Point, Song to Earthmaker, First Contact (v. 1), The Horse Spirit of Eagle Heights; blessings from Buffalo Spirits: Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Brass and Red Bear Boy, The Blessing of Šokeboka, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth; spirits meet in a council: The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Black and White Moons, Holy One and His Brother, The Creation Council, The Children of the Sun, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The Gift of Shooting, East Shakes the Messenger, The Descent of the Drum, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Boy who would be Immortal; a spirit is quoted as he gives someone a blessing: Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Great Walker's Medicine, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Completion Song Origin, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, The Difficult Blessing, The Blessing of Šokeboka, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bow Meets Disease Giver, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Sunset Point, The Rounded Wood Origin Myth, A Peyote Vision, The Healing Blessing; a group of spirit animals sort into four different colors: Bear Clan Origin Myth, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Old Man and His Four Dogs; red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Nannyberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); the spirits bless a fasting man with a special plant: Maize Comes to the Hočągara, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Great Walker's Medicine; someone is blessed with a medicine: A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Fourth Universe, Great Walker's Medicine, Bow Meets Disease Giver, The Seven Maidens, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Seer, The Healing Blessing, A Weed's Blessing, A Snake Song Origin Myth, Young Man Gambles Often, The Origins of the Sore Eye Dance, The Elk's Skull, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, A Peyote Vision, The Sweetened Drink Song; a man acquires knowledge of a medicinal plant through a vision given to him by the spirits: Great Walker's Medicine, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Origins of the Sore Eye Dance; a messenger leads a man to Spiritland: The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Foolish Hunter, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman; a spirit transforms himself into a symbolic representation of what is destined to happen in the future: The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Peace of Mind Regained, The Messengers of Hare; descriptions of human warfare: Annihilation of the Hočągara II, The Warbundle Maker, The First Fox and Sauk War, Great Walker's Medicine, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, Wazųka, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath, The Fox-Hočąk War, Great Walker's Warpath, White Fisher, The Lame Friend, White Thunder's Warpath, The Osage Massacre, A Man's Revenge, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, They Owe a Bullet, The Spanish Fight, Origin of the Name "Milwaukee," The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2), Tobacco Man and Married Man; a warrior captures an enemy's horse: James’ Horse, How Little Priest went out as a Soldier; a young warrior gives the head/scalp of a man he has killed in battle to someone else: White Fisher, (chief), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (warleader), Fighting Retreat (wife), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (oldest brother-in-law); someone returns from the dead: Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Sunset Point, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, White Fisher, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Shaggy Man, The Two Brothers, The Two Boys, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Waruǧápara, The Lost Blanket, The Old Man and the Giants.


Notes

1 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 256-259.