Hočąk Text — Trickster's Warpath

Told by an elder of the tribe in 1912

Transcribed by Sam Blowsnake

Translation based on the interlinear of John Baptiste


 
Notebook Cover   Winnebago V, #7: 1

The syllabic text appears to have been written in pencil in large and, for the most part, clear letters. It was transcribed in syllabic script by Sam Blowsnake from oral presentations made by an old member of the tribe living in Nebraska in 1912. The interlinear translation for the Trickster Cycle was done initially by John Baptiste, who was later replaced by Oliver LaMère.


Some features of this raconteur's syle:

  hapaxlegomena: čakiji, for hičakiji, "my dear sister"; hačąja, "in what"; hagiwąx, "to ask"; higųhexjį, "right away"; hihirokinu, "out of sight"; hijošu, "to put somewhere"; hikjį , "quite a commotion"; mirupara, "to tear up the earth"; ruhap, "to burrow through"; sgisgixjį, "more and more angry".

  wąkšike, "the people," although rare elsewhere, is very common in this work.

  the very rare exclamation, howá, is commonly used.

  the use of égi as the initial word of a sentence is less common than usual.

  žigé, gająga, hija ("there"), ánąga (in the sense of "he said") are used more frequently than usual.

  the diminutive - nįk is used in the names of some animal characters: Wašerekenįka, "Little Fox," Jająksigenįka, "Little Mink."

  he makes extensive use of the concept Already (-ginį, jajineją), sometimes in ways that appear eccentric to English speakers.

The interlinear translation for the Trickster Cycle was done initially by John Baptiste, who was later replaced by Oliver LaMère. This portion of the cycle was translated by John Baptiste. Observed differences in the translations of John Baptiste and Oliver LaMère are set out on this table:

Hočąk Word John
Baptiste
Oliver
LaMère
Wašerenįka Little Fox Coyote
hagoréžą in the course of time finally, etc.
hųgra the king the chief
gająga this time (so) now
tewéraki to his astonishment, to his surprise, unexpectedly (rare) unexpectedly (exclusively)
hohó! well, well; oh, oh oh my! John Baptiste Oliver LaMère
jajineją occasionally translated as "quickly" never translated as "quickly"  
  almost every word is translated some words are not translated, and paraphrase is often used

Material in brackets '[ ]' is inserted by the editor (Richard L. Dieterle), usually for words that have not been translated in the MS.


English Translation


 

p. 1 —
ttiAi n Ki d e tt nK deAe. Ai d Ao Kℒ
Činąkižą éja nąkše. Hižą hųgra
A town there it was. One the King

 


 

Ai tt nK deAe de e A Ko ℒe d. Ao Kℒ.
hija nąkše. Žee hagoréžą hųgra
there it was. Once in the course of time, the king

 


 

to ttA ℒe Ktt n Ae Ke. Ai Aoyi too. A K Ko
točąrekjanahege. Hihóit'ų* hagagú
he was to go on the warpath. Build-with-to-fire to fetch

*more usually hiróit'ų.

 


 

A ℒy ℒe Ktt n Ae de. ay ℒe de. e Ki. AoKo n K. we de
harairekjanaheže, aíreže. Égi hųknąk wéže,
they were going to, they had said. And the king said he,

 


 

Ai Aoyi too ℒ. ttA xeAe te ℒ. tto liAi wi A Ko ℒe
"Hihóit'ųra čaxetéra jopíwi hagúre
"The build-with-to-fire* big deer† four of them to fetch

*in this context, hiróit'ųra means "food".
†by which is meant bucks.

 


 

p. 2 —
w diAi de. e Ki. A ℒy ℒe Ki di. Ke ni wi riini.
wašíže. Égi haraíregiži kénįwis'inį
commanded he them. And when they had gone before very long

 


 

ttA xeAe teℒ. tto liAi wi A K ni A Ki ℒi ℒe de.
čaxetéra jopíwi haganį́ hakiríreže.
bucks four to fetch they had come back.*

*the translation has "to him they fetched for him."

 


 

e Ki. w ℒo ttA ℒ. Ai Kow n Ai tt w re ℒe ℒe de.
Égi waručra higųwąną hija waserereže.
And [the food]* immediately there they put them on.†

*the translation actually has "the nephews" apparently attempting to clarify the agents.
sere actually means "to slit". To prepare the meat for roasting it was slit and put on spits.

 


 

p. 3 —
e Ki. Ki Ko ℒ. w Ko A Ai ℒe Ki di. A tti ℒe de. e Ki.
Égi gigóra wagohahiregiži. Hajireže. Égi
And he invited those who were invited. They came. And

 


 

to ttA ℒe Ktt n Ae de. e de. e rKe Ao Kℒ w o ℒe Ktt n Ae Ke
točąrekjanaheže, éže. Ésge hųgra wa'ųrekjanahege
war-path going he was, he said. Therefore, the king he was going because

 


 

tt n K. m ni ℒo xoAo ℒo Kℒ. A ntt ℒe Ktt n Ae de.
jánąga mani ruxúrukra haną́č rekjanahéže.
as many [to] walk that were able all were to go.

 


 

p. 4 —
tt n wo n xi ℒe Ki diAi Ki e Ki. Ki Ko
Janą woną́ǧire gišígi égi gigo
As many as to fight [over there]. And feasting

 


 

ℒo dtt Ai ℒe Ki. Ao Kℒ. ttAi ℒ. Ao w Ke ℒi de.
rušjahiregi, hųgra čira howakeriže.
when they got through, the king the house toward it he went home.

 


 

A leAe ℒe K tt. de Ko xA w ni de. e rKe K tt K.
haperegają žegų́´ xawaniže. Ésge gająga
They had waited for him but he was gone. Therefore, then

 


 

Ki dtt A Ai ℒe K tt. te we ℒ Ki. A Ki. Ai noKo
gišjahahiregają, tewéraki hagí hinųk´
[when] they went to see him, to his astonishment there a woman

 


 

p. 5 —
A Ki do mi K n K. Ai noKo Ki dKtt tt Kede. e rKe.
hakižu mįgánąga hinųk´ kišgáčjakše. Ésge
with lying he was [and] a woman playing with he was. So

 


 

A Ki ℒi. Ao ℒK deAe. de Ko wK diAi Kℒ e ℒe de.
hakirí horákše. žegų́ wąkšíkra ereže.
come back he told it. So the people dispersed they.

 


 

di Ke A Ko ℒe d wy ℒe de. Ao Kℒ. to ttA Ktt n Ke.
Žigé hagoréžą waíreže hųgra točąkjanage.
Again in the course of time said they the king he is to go on the warpath.

 


 

p. 6 —
Ai ℒoyi too. A K Ko A ℒyi ℒe Ktt ne n. ay ℒe de.
Hiróit'ų hagagú harairekjaneną, aíreže.
Build-with-to-fire to fetch they will be going, they said.

 


 

e tt di Ke. Ai ℒoyi too. K ℒ t de. ttA xeAe te ℒ.
Éja žigé hiróit'ų karatáže. Čaxetéra
There then build-with-to-fire he asked for. Big deer (bucks)

 


 

no liAi wiy n K. e Ki. Aotto ttℒ. no liAi wi. A Ko ℒe w diAi de.
nųpiwianąga égi hųjra nųpiwi haguréwašiže
two of them [and] and bears two of them to bring he commanded them.

 


 

w Ki xA n ℒ. A ℒy ℒe Ki Ke n wi ri ni. tt n K. w Ke K.
wagixanara haraíregi kénįwis'inį jánąga wagegá
Warbundle Bearers* when they went before very long as many [as] he meant

*Baptiste has "the nephews", the translation that he uses throughout. It happens that the nephews are typically the War Bundle Bearers, but the word translated does not literally mean "nephews".

 


 

de n K A K ni A Ki ℒi ℒe de. e Ki. tt tti ne tt.
ženąga haganį́ hakiríže. Égi jajineją
so many to fetch [they had come back.]* And immediately

*the translation has simply, "they fetched for him."

 


 

Ai tt w Ke ℒe ℒe de. Ki Ko Ai ℒo we ℒ. ℒ Ki ni de. e Ki.
hijáwakerereže. Gigo hirowera raginįže. Égi
they put them on. [He called] he invited he has gone already. And

*Gigo hirowera is translated obscurely in English as: "feast to invite the one".

 


 

p. 8 —
Ki Ko A tti ℒe de. di Ke. tt tti ne tt. Ao Kℒ.
gigó hajíreže. Žigé jajineją hųgra
to feast they came. Again already the king

 


 

to ttA ℒ. n di Ktt ne w o nK deAe. e Ki. Ki Ko ℒ.
točąra nažįkjane wa'ųnąkše. Égi gigora
to [go to] war he would stand he was. And the invited [ones]

 


 

wo Ki doyi ℒe Ki. w ℒotto. nK Koo Ke ni deKe. w ℒotto
wokižuyiregi waruj nąk'ų kenįške waruj
when they had been given, they were eating while before eating

 


 

p. 9 —
ℒo dtt A ℒ n. Ai Ai nl deAe. A leAe Ai ℒe K tt. de Ko xA w ni de.
rušjaharana hihiną́pše. Hapehiregają, žegų́´ xawaniže.
they got through he went out. They had waited for him, but he did not appear.

 


 

Ai Ke. Ao e ℒe ℒ. Ai Ki ta ta ni w o de. e rKe. Ai d
Hįké ho'eréra hikit'at'anįwa'ųže. Ésge hižą
Not to disperse he had not talked for. So one of them

 


 

Ki dtt Ai de. di Ke A Ki Ai noKo A Ki do
gišjáhiže. Žigé hagí hinųk´ hakižu
he went to see him. Again at home a woman was with

 


 

p. 10 —
miKi K Kede. A ni leAe nK dA n Ai Ky ℒe de. K tt. we de.
mígąkeže. "Hanipenąkšaną," higaíreže. Gają wéže,
he was lying. "They are waiting for you," they said to him. When replied,

 


 

tt Ko. di Ke Ai tt A o Kette de. tt Ko.
"Jagú žigé hija ha'ųkježe? Jagú
"What else more there will I do? What

 


 

w ℒotto doAo ℒo dtt wi Ki di. de Ko ℒ w K tt.
waruj šurušjawigiži, žegų́´ rawagają,"
eating when you are through, then you are done,"

 


 

e de. e rKe A Ki Ao ℒK deAe. tt Ko e K.
éže. Ésge hagi horákše, jagú eka
he said. So he came he told it, what he had said

 


 

wo Ki ℒ Ki di. de Ko. e ℒe de. di Ke. de Ko
wogiragiži. žegų́´ ereže. Žigé žegų́´
when he had told them. Then they scattered. Again there was

 


 

Ai Ke w d ℒ Ai d Ae ℒe ni de. di Ke.
hįké wažąra hižą herenįže. Žigé
not thing one not to be done. Again

 


 

de e A Ko ℒe d. wy ℒe de. AoKℒ. to ttA Ktt ne Ke.
žee hagoréžą waíreže, "Hųgra točąkjanege
once in due time said they, "The king because he is going to war

 


 

p. 12 —
Ai ℒoyi too A K Ko A A ℒy ℒe Ktt ne n. ay ℒe de. e Ki
hiroit'ų hagagu haharairekjaneną, aíreže. Égi
to feast with they are going to get for him, they had said. And

 


 

Ai ℒoyi too ℒ. K ℒ t Ki. we de. Ao ttℒ. w rAK Kℒ.
hiroit'ųra karatági wéže hųjra wasakara
the sacrifices when he asked for he said bears male - largest

 


 

tto liAi wi A Ko w diAi de. e Ki. w Ki xA n ℒ. di Ke
jopíwi haguwašiže. Égi wagixanara žigé
four of them he commanded to be fetched. And the Warbundle Bearers* again

*again Baptiste translates this as "nephews".

 


 

p. 13 —
Ao Ki ni A ℒy ℒe de. Ke ni wi rii ni. tt Ko A K.
hokinį́ haraíreže. kénįwis'inį jagúhagá
to hunt for him they went. Before very long what

 


 

de rKe A K ni A Ki ℒi ℒe de e Ki w ℒo ttA ℒ.
žesge haganį́ hakirireže. Égi waručąra
[that kind] they brought it home for him. Then the aides*

*this too was translated as "the nephews".

 


 

Ai tt w Ke ℒe Ai ℒ n K. e Ki. w ℒo ttA ℒ. Ki Ko
hijáwakere hiránąga égi waručąra gigó
they put them on [he did and] then the aides* [he called]

*again translated as "the nephews".

 


 

Ai ℒo we ℒ ℒ Ki ni de. tt tti ne tt. Ki Ko ℒ.
hirowera raginįže. jajineją gigóra
he invited he went already. immediately those invited

 


 

p. 14 —
A tti ℒe de. e Ki. tt tti ne tt w leA w ℒtt.
hajíreže. Égi jajineją wapewaraj
they came. And immediately those who eat the heads

 


 

ℒ dtt Ki di. A Ki Ai Ai nl deAe. di Ke de Ko
rašjągiži, hagí hihiną́pše. Žigé žegų́´
after naming, [there] he went out. Again [now]

 


 

xA w ni de. di Ke Ki dtt A Ai ℒe K tt. di Ke
xawaniže. Žigé gišjahahiregają, žigé
he was gone for good. Again when they had gone to look for him, again

 


 

p. 15 —
tt tti ne tt Ai noKo Ki nolo mi K Ki ni de. di Ke
jajineją hinųk´ kinupmįgąkiniže. Žigé
he was already a woman abed he was lying. Again

 


 

Ki Ko ℒ. de Ko e ℒe de. to ttA
gigóra žegų́´ ereže. Točą
those who came to the feast [now] they separated. War[path]

 


 

K ℒ Ktt li ℒe no ni Ke. di Ke A Ke w d ni de.
karakjąpire nųnįgé žigé hąké wažąnįže.
they expected to go on but again not nothing to do.

 


 

di Ke A Ko ℒe d. Ai tto l A ℒ. di Ke e de.
Žigé hagoréžą hijobą́hąrá žigé éže,
Again in the course of time being the fourth again he said,

 


 

K tt K. Ao rKe w n Kℒ Ai leAe ℒe ri ℒe de.
"Gająga hosgé." Wánąkra hiperesireže.
"This time not so." [The one who said it]* they knew it.

*translated as "he was saying".

 


 

p. 16 —
Ki Ko di Ai ℒe Ktt ne Ai ℒ Ai ℒ no ni Ke.
Gigóži hirekjanehira híra nųnįgé
Feast [at least] they were going to have they were going but

 


 

to ttA n K di. Ao rKe w n Kℒ Ai leAe ℒe ri ℒe de.
točąnąkži hosgé wánąkra hiperesireže.
the going to war [at any rate] it was not so [the one who said it] they knew it.

 


e Ki. Ai ℒoyi too. A Ko ℒe w di Ki w toKo
Égi hiróit'ų hagúre wašigi watok
Then offerings* to fetch [when] he commanded female-bear

*translated as "some offering[s]", but elsewhere translated as "build-with-to-fire". It may refer to wood, but here it does seem to refer to food. Thus it may mean, "materials for the fire".

 


 

p. 17 —
ay ℒe n. Aotto xeAe te xitti w Kyi ℒe n. w toKo
aíreną, hųj xétexjį wagaireną. Watok
they are called, bear very large they mean. Female-bear

 


 

a n K. de rKe ℒ. t[t]o liAi wi A Ko ℒe w diAi de
ánąga žesgéra jopíwi hagúre wašíže.
as they were saying that kind four of them to be brought he commanded.

 


 

w Ki xA n ℒ. di Ke Ke ni wi rii ni. tt Ko
wagixanara žigé kénįwis'inį jagú
The Warbundle Bearers again before very long what

 


 

w Ke K. de rKe A K ni A Ki ℒi ℒe de. di Ke
wagegá žesge haganį́ hakiríreže. Žigé
he meant that [to fetch] [they had come back.]* Again

*haganį́ hakiríreže is translated together as "they brought it for him".

 


 

p. 18 —
tt tti ne tt. wo A ℒ. Ai tt w Ke ℒe Ai ℒ Ki ni de.
jajineją wohą́ra hijáwakere híraginíže.
immediately the kettles they put them on [they did it already.]

 


 

Ki Ko ℒ. tti li Ki ni de. w Koyi ℒe Ki K tt K. Ai tt
Gigóra jįpiginiže wagoiregi. Gająga hija
To the feast they assembled those invited. This time there

 


 

nK Koo Ki Ko ℒ. ℒo dtt Ai ℒe de. w ℒo x lℒ. e Ki
nąk'ų gigóra rušjahireže. waruǧápara égi
he was sitting the feast they got through. The warbundle and

 


 

p. 19 —
m wo do ℒ. w Ko ℒo r n K. tal tti ℒe de. A Ao. to ttA ℒ.
mąwožúra wagorusanąga t'ąpjiréže. "Hąho! točąra
the arrow bundle he took and quickly he arose. "Now! to the war

 


 

A Ki ni n a n K w o de. Ko A ℒ. ttA we de.
hagininą," ánąga. Wa'ųže. Kohara čaweže.
I am going now," he said. He did thus. Below toward he went.

 


 

w ttℒ e tt Ki Kiy Ki. e ttA we de. w tte tt
Wájra éja kigiyagi ečawéže. Wajéja
The boat there his it was. Toward it he went. To the boat

 


 

Ai Ki di. w tt Ao mi K nK de. Ai deKe Aitt ne ℒ.
higiži waja homįgnąkše. Hišgé hijanera
when he got there boat he got in. Also the others

 


 

A ntt tti li de. tt n K. wo n xi ℒe Ki liAi ℒ.
haną́č jįpiže. Jánąga woną́ǧire gipįra
all they assembled. All those [war] [the ones who liked it]*

*wonaǧire gipįra is translated as "who could fight".

 


 

A ntt w ttℒ wo mi K nK Ai ℒe de. e Ki Ao Kℒ.
haną́č wájra womįgnąkhireže. Égi hųgra
all of them into their boats they got in they did. Then the king

 


 

w o Ke. tt n K. w rA KeAe ℒ. A ntt. Aoyi wo ttiKi deAe.
wa'ųge jánąga waskerera haną́č hoiwojikše.
because it was all the able-bodied everyone of them followed.

 


 

p. 21 —
tt tti ne tt. w ti ℒe Ai Ki ni de. ni xeAe teyi d. A ℒe Ko
Jajineją watíre hikiniže. Nįxeteyižą harekú
Already they pushed out [-]. A large water downstream

 


 

w o Ai ℒe de. w Ai ℒe K tt. to ttAo woKo Kℒ w o de.
wa'ųhireže. Wą́hirégają točǫwokra wa'ųže,
[they did]. As they were going along, the leader of the warpath he did,

 


 

a tti nK deAe. we de. tow ttA A A w Ki ℒ Kette. w o mK dA n.
ajinąkše. Wéže, "Towačąhahare. wakisakje wa'ųmą́kšaną.
he came out to land. Said he, "This warpath I am going on. To fight I am going to.

 


 

p. 22 —
A Ke w Ki r doAo ℒo xoAo ℒo Kini n. tt Ko doo deAe ℒe Kette de.
Hąké wakisa šuruxurukinįną. Jagú š'ušerekježe?"
Not fight. you cannot Why should you go?"

 


 

w ttℒ Ai K ℒ Ke de. e Ki. a toolo deAe. e Ki.
wájra higarageže.* Égi ąt'ųpše, égi
his boat he said to it. Then he pulled it up and

*higerageže would be more standard.

 


 

Ki xoAo xoAoxo deAe. e tt Ao t. wo wK Ai ℒe n.
gixuxuxše. Éja hotá wową́k hireną
he smashed it to pieces. There those bad they thought him [to be],

 


 

i ne Ki. w Kd Ai ℒe de. di Ke mo we A ℒy ℒe de.
inéki wakšąhíreže. Žigé mowe haraíreže.
[alone] went back. Again on foot they started.

 


 

di Ke de e e tt. tteAe xi d. A ℒo ttAyi ℒe de.
Žigé žee éja čexižą haručaíreže.
Again there at there a swamp they had crossed.*

*the word "had" is inserted by a caret.

 


 

m ni lA doAo ℒo tteKe tt de. e tt
nįpa šorojge jaže. Éja
On the ground elevated above bunched-grass* [standing]. There

*the translation has "a lot of bunched-grass".

 


 

di Ke we de. tow ttA m Keℒe. w Ki r to xoAo ℒo Ke
Žigé wéže, "Towačąmąkere wakisa tuxuruge
Again he said, "My going on the warpath to fight I am able,

 


 

p. 24 —
w o mK dA n. Ai xK xK to xoAo ℒo Ke. A Ke
wa'ųmą́kšaną. Hixgąxgą́ tuxuruge. Hąké
therefore I am going. To move about easily I can. Not

 


 

w d ℒ. Ai d ℒ Ki liAi ni n. ni Kii Ki
wažąra hižą ragipinįną. Nik'įgi
anything. one you could do good not. When I pack

 


 

dA n. ni ti ℒe n. tt Ko. Ai xK
šana nitireną. Jagú hixgąx?
only you can move. What [how] can you move?

 


 

doAo ℒo xoAo ℒoKo ℒ tte de. to ℒ ttA Ktt ne. w woyi dA Ai
Šuruxurukraježe. Toračąkjane wawoišąhi
You cannot. To go on a warpath you are simply a bother

 


 

p. 25 —
ℒ dA n ni ne n. a n K. w ℒo x lℒ. e tt m Ay tt
rašananineną," ánąga. Waruǧápara éja mahaija
that's all," he said. The warbundle there into the ground

 


 

Ao n ttiAili deAe. de Ko Aiy tte Ke ℒe de. e tt. di Ke
honąčípše. žegų́´ hiyajekereže. Éja žigé
he kicked it. Thus he had done then he started. There again

 


 

Ao t w Kd Ai ℒe de. K tt K. w tK niKi deAe. di Ke
hotá wakšąhíreže. Gająga watáganįkše. Žigé
some turned back. This time they were few. Again

 


 

p. 26 —
e tt ow Ai K tt. di Ke m wo do ℒ. ni Ke
éja 'úwahigają žigé mąwožúra nįgé
there as he was going along again the arrow bundle away

 


 

Ao too ne de. A Ke to ttA doAo ℒo xoAo ℒo Kini n.
hot'úneže. "Hąké točą šuruxurukrukinįną.
he threw it. "Not to go on warpath to do unable you are.

 


 

te e di. w Ki r n Ke. w o mK dA n. e de.
teeži wakisanąke wa'ųmą́kšaną," éže.
This myself I could fight is why I am going," he said.

 


 

e tt. K tt K. A ntt w Kd Ai ℒe de.
Éja gająga haną́č wakšąhíreže,
There this time all of them they returned,

 


 

p. 27 —
wo w Ki de ℒe Ke.
wowąkišerege.
because he was a bad one.

 


Source:

"Wakjukaga," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago V, #7: 1-27.