The McKern Papers on Hocąk Ethnography

General Index

an asterisk (*) after a number denotes a page that contains a story

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Phonetics:         ġ = slightly back K
  Consonants: —     d = t-d
    c = sh in English
    j = z in azure
    tc = ch in chair
    dj = j in judge
    x = ch in German Bach
    X = sonant of x
    r = slightly trilled
    ŋ = ng in sing
        nasalized vowels
    n = nasalized r
    = glottal stop
    = aspiration
  Vowels: —      
    â = au in aught
    ā = a in father
    a = a in hat
    e = e in pen
    = e like that in French fete
    ē = long
    ɘ = neutral like e in her
    i = i in tin
    ī = e in be
    o = o in post
    ŏ = u in pull
    ū = oo in fool
    ´ = stress accent primary    
    ` = stress accent secondary.    
    ʌ = neutral as u in but



Close vowels —

a as in father = closed


wa ki pi min       Yellow Lotus (Nelumbo luka).

Maybe Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium)

or Queen of Prairie (Filipendula rulua)


Three Square Rush Δ (Scirpus americanus)


Received -
  from W.C. McKern,
in advance for Indian
    John H Bear
Ind. Chief Black Bear


Winnebago Notes
    Informants: —  
      1. Black Bear  
(hũtc sĕp´)
Monday, 31st
4 hrs.  
  $1.00 paid
$1.00 applied to debt
  Jono H Bear  
Tuesday, 1st
4 hrs.  
  $1.00 paid
$1.00 applied to debt.
  John H Bear  
Wednesday, 2nd 4 hrs ——  
  $1.00 paid
$1.00 applied to debt.
Thursday, 3rd 4 hrs.  
  $2.00 paid ——  
John H. Bear    
Saturday, 5th —— 4. hrs.  
  $1.00 paid
$1.00 applied to debt.
  John H Bear  


Nov. 7th — Monday — 4. hrs.  
$1.00 paid,

$1.00 applied to debt.
  John H Bear  


        story of naming child
story of return from war
old time making of bow + arrow
story of skunk-skin garters
Tues, Nov. 8th Received:  
  for 4 hrs
  John H Bear  
Wed. Nov., 9th Received  
  for 4 hrs
  $1.00 paid
$1.00 applied to debt.
    John H Bear  
Thurs. Nov. 10 Received:  
  for 4 hrs.
  John H. Bear  
Sat. Nov. 12 Received:  
  for 4 hrs — $1.00. $1.00 applied to debt.
    John H Bear  
Mon. Nov. 14. Received:  
  for ½ of 4 hrs. $1.00 $1.00 applied to debt
    John H Bear  
Tues. Nov. 15 Received  
  for further 5 hrs 2.50
    John H Bear  


Wednesday — Nov. 16.  
  for information — ½ of 4 hrs.  
    Paid — $1.00 applied to debt. $1.00
      John H. Bear  
Thursday — Nov. 17  
  for information — ½ of 4 hrs.  
    Paid — $1.00 applied to debt $1.00
    John H. Bear  
Saturday — Nov 19  
  for information full time — 4 hrs.
    Paid — $1.00 applied to debt $1.00
  John H. Bear  
Monday — Nov 21  
  for information ½ of 4 hrs.  
    Paid $1.00 $1.00 applied to debt.
  John H. Bear  
Tuesday, Nov. 22  
  for information, full time 4 hrs.  
    Paid $2.00  
      John H. Bear  


Friday, Nov. 25, 1    
  for information, full time - 4 hrs. $2.00  
John H. Bear    
Saturday, Nov. 26    
  for information, ½ time - 8 hrs. $2.00 $1.00 applied
    John H. Bear    
Monday, Nov. 28.    
  for information, ½ time, 4 hrs. $1.00 - $1.00 applied
    John H. Bear    
Tuesday, Nov 29.    
  for information, ½ of 4 hrs. - $1.00 — $1.00 applied.
    John H. Bear    
Wednesday, Nov. 30    
  for information, full time 4 hrs. - $2.00  
    John H. Bear    
Thursday, Dec. 1    
  for information, ½ time, $1.00
$1.00 applied.
    John H. Bear    
Friday, Dec. 2.    
  for information, full time, 4 hrs.
    John H. Bear    
Monday, Dec. 5    
  for information, ½ time, 4 hr - $1.00 ($1.00 to Smith)
    John H. Bear    


Tuesday, Dec. 6, 1927    
  for information, full time, 4 hrs. $1.00 ($1.00 to Smith)
    John H. Bear    
Wednesday, Dec. 7, 1927.    
  for information, ½ time, 4 hrs. $1.00 — $1.00 applied to debt
    John H. Bear    
Thursday, Dec. 8, 1927    
  for information, ½ time 4 hrs. $1.00 — $1.00 applied to debt.
    John H. Bear    
Friday, Dec. 9, 1927    
  for information, full time, 4 hrs. $2.00  
    John H. Bear    
Friday, Dec. 12, 1927    
  for information, full time, 4 hrs. $2.00  
  Overtime —, 6 hrs., $3.00  
    John H. Bear $5.00  


John Bear.   Paid
Applied to debt
  Oct. 31st
  Nov. 1
  " 2
  " 3
  " 5
  " 7
  " 8
  " 9
  " 10
  " 12
  " 14
  " 15
  " 16
  " 17
  " 19
  " 21
  " 22
  " 25
  " 26
  " 28
        28.50   $14.00


Applied to debt
  Nov. 29
  " 30
  Dec. 1
  Dec. 2
  Dec. 5
  Dec. 6
  Dec. 7
  Dec. 8
  Dec. 9
due Museum.
  Dec. 10
  Dec. 12
2.00   3.15
            .15 due


U. S. White.
Tuesday - Nov. 1st - Received
  $2.00 for 4 hrs. work.    
    Ulysses White    
Wednesday - Nov. 2nd - Received
  $2.00 for 4 hrs. work.    
    Ulysses White    
Thursday - Nov. 3rd Received
  $2.00 for 4 hrs.    
    Ulysses White    
Tuesday - Nov. 8th Received  
  $2.00 for 4 hrs.    
    Ulysses White    
Wednesday - Nov. 9th Received  
  $2.00 for 4 hrs.    
    Ulysses White    
Thurs. - Nov. 10th Received.  
  for 4 hrs. $2.00  
    Ulysses White    
Sat. - Nov. 12th Received.  
  for 4 hrs. $2.00  
    Ulysses White    


Tuesday, Nov. 22  
  for information, full time 4 hrs. $2.00
    Ulysses White.  
Friday, Nov. 25  
  for information, full time - 4 hrs. $2.00
    Ulysses White.  
Saturday, Nov. 26.  
  for information, full time - 8 hrs. $4.00
    Ulysses White.  
Wed. Dec. 7, 1927  
  for information, full time 4 hrs. $2.00
    Ulysses White.  
Thurs., Dec. 8, 1927  
  for information, full time 4 hrs. ——— $2.00
    Ulysses White.  
Friday, Dec. 9, 1927  
  for information, full time, 4 hrs. ——— $2.00
    Ulysses White.  



Reckoning of descent
      Individual names
      Attitude towards totems
Topics: — Relationship to        "
  Clan tie
      Clan functions
  Bear clan The reciprocal relationships
      Specific possessions of clan
    Origin myth Immaterial possessions of clan
    Rules + regulations governing
  ? Symbolism. Clan marks
    Rituals — influence of clan upon ceremonial organization
Death + funeral customs.
    Clan feasts
    War bundle feast
Place of clan in Medicine lodge.


Chief John Bear's address
785 Caff St.

Saturday afternoon.    


Thunder clan sat on oak branch before they touched earth.
Bear clan and Thunder clan associated    
  Thunder band created first — chief from this band.
  Bear band —      
  Wolf band —      
  Four bears.      
       1st = kūnū́gā —   red bear  
       2nd = hēnʌ́gā —   green bear male
       3rd = hāgā́gā —   yellow bear = bright.
       4th = nāh‘ī́́gā —   white bear  

  1st born boy = conã́kehõka = clear weather man
  2nd      "        = hõtc´hõka = bear chief.
  3rd      "        = nīnk lĕ́xlĭrīkā = second bear two year old cub.
  4th      "        = nãhŭrūhóka = clan marks on tree.
  5th      "        = nãƙīƙṹnoga = next after following the youngest
  6th      "        = naƙũƙũnonĩka = still smaller
  1st born girl = hīnū́gā = tconṍkewĩka clear weather woman
  2nd      "       = wīhʌ̃́gā = hũtc´inũka = bear woman
  3rd      "       = hʌkse͡ágā = hominak hónika — looking for place to sit down.
  4th      "        = hīnʌkĕ́ga = ?
  5th      "        = hīnʌkĕ́‘hōnō =
  6th      "        = hʌk se͡agā́hōnō =
  7th      "        = hʌk seagáhōnōníka =


3 = hominakhóniga - seeking resting place.
4 = mã́kŏwĭga = edge of above land making a nest for resting place

bear came on nice clear day (1st name). Created
at Red Bank (2nd name) — trail along
yellow sand. Wolf coming down
trail and see bear track. These are our
friends, they said. Lets go down to
see them. They went on, following trail
away from rim into thick timber. Toward
bear in timber. Said, we are friends of
your generation. Talked. Let us be
friendly together. Whatever you ask, we
will do it, said wolves. Bear said same.
After we lose one, we will help one another
bury the dead. If we do this, no worm or
vermin will disturb the bodies. Bears said
you see how we are colored differently.
Three different colors painted on forehead of
our dead; and blue lengthwise of chin.
So they said, we are going to find
some place of the land where we
can rest. This our friend is going
to be buried, we must find a place
in which to bury him. Whenever we die, our
friends the wolves will bury us.


Some came to sing and talk to the dead.
Before we go back, said bear, let us show
how this our generation shall live. Then
bears placed rainbow in the sky. There one
sees color. This will bring you ‸ our generation good luck.
We will build our homes like the rainbow in
shape. That will bring us good luck. So

Bow symbolism.
  One end of bow = male
  Other        "        = female
  Rainbow symbols in center
    colors of bear
    good luck
    house of bear clan
  At thither end - berry + first symbols to
represent food: daily bread.
Flag. = hòkĕrĕũ´

Bird bands and animal bands, altogether
made and bird feather flag. Feathers from
all of bird clans. Animal clans represented
by feathers also.

Bear band police village.    Each had oak
  club - insignia of bear band.
Manápĕ = soldiers
Had vocal signal — repeated four times
    like whine (2 syllables)


Police - When man breaks tribal rule,
  police had authority to kill if met with
resistance. Otherwise, offenders made presents
to police. Women caught in adultery, beaten
with oak sticks of authority, and marked
with knife on face, as nose removed; sometimes
hair bobbed. Husband bit nose off.
Police clubs not marked, straight stick.
  about 3´ to 4´ long and 1½″ in diameter
at butt end. mãmáce = name of club. 
  not definite, any woman but bear.
  Man dies. Hunted toward west for places
to bury dead. Bear leader marks dead + sings for dead.    


Bear clan origin myth:—
       The bears are four different colors, the first
one ‸ (——) is red, the first born boy ( ————).
The second bear (——) was green, the third one (      ),
was yellow. The fourth (———) was white. This
will be our way of living in this generation, from
this time on. And they went till they came to
the red banks where the thunder clan came to
the earth and roosted on the branch of a white
oak. The thunder clan said ‸ to bear clan, I will fix ‸ me here
a place that I may live on the earth. And then
there was a rainbow. And ‸ said to the bear clan -- said, to the Thunderers,
pointing to the rainbow, "you should always
live under that rain bow. We will always help
your people." So the bear clan fixed a place for
the thunder clan to live on the earth. He made
a mound for him to live on. Then he made a
mound for himself. The bear clan, to live on. "Now
we will live with you and take care of our people
for ever.‸ we shall be called tcónʌke" And they went from those mounds and
went through the woods. And by the bank of
a river, and finally they met four wolves. These
wolves saw the bear tracks on the sand bars.
Then they said, "here are the tracks of our friends
the bears. Let us follow them." Finally
they came to where the bears were resting. They
called each other friends. They said to each
other as long as we live, if we ask for anything
from each other, each one of us shall never


  refuse. This was the agreement of friendship.
This will give us strength forso that our generation
shall have good life. And our one of our children shall
leave us some day. When one of our children
dies we shall take care of each other, bundle
each other in burying, so that the soul will
be saved. They both agreed that they should

bury each other. Bear clan said, in regard to
the rainbow, "There are our colors, the four
colors of the bears. When one of our children
dies he shall have these marks on forehead
and one over the chin.
     This way, worms and vermin will not
molest the body

      The bear clan had names for their generation,
both for people and for dogs. They had
names of their own according to which was first
born, so that people would know by their
name just what kind of men they were. The
four bears ‸ members got their names from the actions of
the four bears. The first son was named
(-1-  ). The second son was named  (- 2 - ). The
third son was named ( — 3 — ). Fourth son
was named – ( — 4 — ). The first daughter
named ( same as formerly).


  Before you get to old woman's house,
you will come by bad spirit's fire place.
Don't go close to it, or bad spirit will get you.
(A guide then to take him by)


Finish of first burial story
  Leader man sings for dead man after marking
    with colors:
    "My brother, going to leave all relatives
  on earth. ↙ You tell spirit you are not getting
enough, you left all with us, so we
will not get weak. Therefore go see old
woman grandmother on way out west, before get to
land village of dead. As soon as you go in there,
go and sit down opposite old woman. She
will be cooking something for you.
She will hand wooden dish of food and
wooden spoon. When she hands it to you,
don't eat it all up. Tell grandmother,
give this food I leave to my relations.
That is so, will say old woman. Some
eat all the food and their relatives
grow weak for lack of food. My grandchild,
I have to do that. That is what the our
grandfather placed me here for, to take
brain out. When you get to village of
dead, you go and sing like you brothers
sing for them, so relations will know
who you are. Sing about conʌ́ke so
people there will know that one of soldiers
of Deer band has come. When you
get there, see long houses with all different
relatives there. There they will take you


to the ghost leader. He will tell you, "What
did you do while alive?" Tell him that you
did well or wrong. If you did well, stay four
years and then go to great father. Tell him
him my relatives left on earth, I left with
them most of what great father gave me, so that
they shall live well. Great father placed
everything down here on earth for men, that
they might grow strong. So that they will
live their allotted time on earth. After four
years, you go to great father and tell him to
send food + health to relations on earth.
(If did wrong in this world, stayed in village
of dead forever).

Old time  
  Woman mourns four years for husband. Stay with
    his relatives. Not married till after
  Man mourns four years for wife, stay with
    her relatives. Not married till after.
  Dress poorly. Work for mate's relatives.
  Other relative mourn four nights of feast.
    Morning after 4th night, ghost starts
  After first speech, warriors tell of feats of valor,
    to make relatives forget sorrow.


  Dead, clothed + wrapped in Deer hide,  
layer of logs below body + layer over the
body, like little house, so dirt will not fall
on body. No mound of earth on top.
  Talk to body again:  
    Tells about four bears, bear creation myth.  
  Tells people not to cry. Leader steps over
grave. Don't turn back to look at grave.
    Bundle of tobacco in left hand of  
  dead, to give to old woman and leader of
village of dead.
    Four nights of feast of dead.  
      1st speeches.  
      2nd pass pipe + water. Smoke and
       drink before exit.
      3rd eat feast.  
    Stick – length of body – placed on top  
      of ground lengthwise of grave. Nãksĭ́k
(means stick) the special name. Tc — [tci ?]
meaning grave.
  Relative of dead furnishes food.  
  Dead man's property to wolf band. Wolf  
    band returns presents to bear band.  
  If dead could not be brought for proper
    funeral to locality of relatives, four night
feast any how.
  Fourth night – play game for wagers.  
    just men play moccasin game or any other
kind of game. Wolf men are leaders of


    funeral and tend to everything.
  Four night feast = Wānā́ƙī | hā tā shā́ hī |
                             |  ghost  | lighted for  |

Flag notes: —
  Call note of police when something happens in
    village. Bear band = custodian of flag.
When enemies approach. Stick flag up as
warning not to come farther. War cry only
given by one who has no care whether he
lives or dies, but is going to give all he has
in the battle – almost like running amuck.
Flag also used to make men fight
harder. Men would rally round flag
and fight more fiercely.

Puberty ceremony (both thunder + bear band)
    Old people stay home to talk to younger
  people. And then they sit about before daylight
came. Old man, head of family then. Say! (1st song.)
"Grandchildren, get up. If we sing this way,
Everything that lives on earth get up. Day is
coming. (2nd song.) To all kinds of birds flying
around air, get up, day is coming. (3rd) Creator
says to me, get up, day is coming. (4th) Whoever
gives us daylight, they are coming. Do something.
    (End of songs)


Talking – Children, do something. Our
great father looks at us, gives us daylight
and sees us. Get up to do something.
All live on ground, when daylight comes,
hunt food. We have to do the same.
Because Creator says it should be so, we
should do that. You life is not for
nothing. Something you must do. You
will have a family to look after in future
time. So it is now time to learn how to
do everything before you are head of a family.
Because day is coming. God gives us
all things we need outside. Don't wait
in house and waste time. Do something.
God created you to do something, that
you might have good luck and receive
help, ‸ that our life may be long. So you
be a good father of family. So you be
a good mother of family, when you have
married. That is what creator gives us
intended. When day comes, get something
to live on. So that if you enemies come,
you may fight for you country. You may
help your people defend you country.
Young men + young women were told by
forefathers to do this. They said, the
same thing, so that you people will say
that you have done something for them.


Try to dream something. Take charcoal
and blacken face, go 4 days + nights without food + drink, and try to get help,
so that you can be a good warrior and a
good warrior. So the creator intended, that
our generation might be stronger.

  Boys blackened all of face. Women
just round spot on each cheek. Went
away to where there were no people. At
time of 1st sickness, women go to small tent
and use certain dish + spoon.
  Hʌ̃tʌ́kinatc = man's fasting for dream.
tcokᵋcíncĕk = first monthly ceremony.
Woman has scratching stick.
Women during monthly periods fast! Don't
  look at any one. When fourth day
comes, she goes to take bath, put on fresh
clothes; + smoke body. When she
comes into house, smoke all things with
cedar leaves (fumigates house). This to
keep war club, or other things, from becoming
Spirit gives man directions of what to do,
  whether to be warrior, medicine man, or what not.
Some times failed 20 days. If dream did not
come then, they would try again.
Young man – returns to village, fumigates
  things in house, like women. Tells vision to
father or grand father, if he is alive.


  A man visits the young man from time to time
    while he is fasting, to see how he is getting
along. He asks him if he has had a dream
yet. When he has, he brings him back to
  Some old man who is good medicine man or
    warrior. Eats with young men. Before he
begins to eat, he talks to boy. Tells him of
his dream, asks young man what he dreamed.
Tells him if it is good or bad dream. Asks
if he saw any grizzly bear; what the bear
says brings good luck for short time – may
not live long, may murder some of people.
No good. Dream of wood spirits shaped like a
cat bad dream. If they ask for 4 dogs, they
mean four children. So this dream is bad and
not to be followed. Cast these dreams from you
mind. We do not want it. Bad spirits live in
side of trees. Various colors. Live on inside of
tree. Kill it by marking out west side. Thunder
spirits will strike with lightening sometime.
two names
One of these spirits = wakãítcu } both shaped like
for same spirits Others called nótci.         cat.
    Some of them white, others red. No way of telling in
what tree they are in, some in trees adjacent to where
dream was experienced. Tells him of past
methods and of advisability of continuing into
future. Tells him how to follow dream
instructions, right way, to insure long life
and success.


About mounds: —
  Thunder band = near mound in center.
    leader's house near mound.
  wolf — north
bear — east
buffalo — south.
snake — west.


Thunder clan was first in point of origin. The
  thunderers perched on the branch of an oak tree
before they finally descended to the surface of the land.
That is why the oak club is used by the Bear
police in the Winnebago village.
The village chief is always member of Thunder clan. That
  was the first clan. The second clan was the Bear
clan. Members of bear clan = tconʌ́ke. Wolf
clan came third. Wolf + Bear clans reciprocal.
Member of wolf clan =

33 (reformatted and corrected text)

This is how it was in the old days. There were four bears. They came on a nice clear day. It is said that they were created at Red Banks. The first bear was named Kunúga. He was a red bear. The name of the second bear was Heną́ga. He was a green bear. The name of the third bear was Hagága. He was a yellow bear. The name of the fourth bear was Naxíga. He was a white bear. The trail led along the shore of the lake. Afterwards came the wolf band and saw the tracks of the bear on the trail before them. "These are our friends," they said, "let us go down to see them." They followed the tracks of the bears. The trail led away from the lake into the thick woods. There in the woods they found the bears. To them they said, "We are friends of your generation." So they talked together. "Let us be friendly," said the wolves, "whatever you ask of us, that we will do." Then the bears said, "That is good. Whatever you ask of us, that will we do also. After we lose one (through death), we will help one another in burying the dead. If we do this, no worm or vermin will disturb the body." The bears also said, "You see how we are colored differently. That is how we shall paint the forehead and the chin of the dead. Three different colors on the forehead (red, white, and green) and blue on the chin. That way it will be good." So they said, the bears, "We are going to find some place on the earth where we can rest. This, our friend, is going to be buried. We must find

See, "Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 11."

34 (reformatted and corrected text)

a place in which to bury him. Whenever we die, our friends the wolves will bury us. Let someone talk to the dead. We will also sing to him." "Before we go away," said the bears, "let us show how this our generation shall live." Then the bears placed the rainbow in the sky. "There are our colors," they said. "This will bring our generation good luck. So shall they live long in the land. We shall build our houses like the rainbow. In that shape shall we make them. That will bring us good luck. That will lengthen our days."

See, "Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 11."


Death Ritual:

     When a member of the bear clan died, the bear
leader painted his face with the bear clan colors, transverse
strips on the forehead and a blue stripe lengthwise on
the chin. After the paint was applied, the leader sang
to the corpse. Then he spoke to the corpse:

35b (reformatted and corrected text)

My brother, you are going to leave all your relatives on this earth. After four days, you will start on your journey. You will see a trail to the west; follow that trail. Before you come to our old grandmother's house, you will see beside the trail the fireplace of an evil spirit. A man will guide you past that danger. Do not go close to that fire place. Walk straight by there. Then you will come to our old grandmother's house on your way out west. There you will come before you reach the village of the dead (ghosts). When you come to her house, enter and sit by the fire opposite her. She will be cooking something for you. She will give you a wooden bowl of food and a wooden spoon with which to eat it. When she gives this to you, do not eat all of it. Tell our old grandmother, "Give this food which I leave to my relatives who remain alive.""That is good," the old woman will then say, "some eat all the food, and their relatives grow weak from lack of food." Then she will say, "My grandchild, I have to do this. For this was I placed here by the Creator, to remove the brains of those who come this way." When you come to the village of the dead, go and sing the songs of your bear brothers, so that

See, "Journey to Spiritland, Version 9."

36 (reformatted and corrected text)

your relatives will know who you are. Sing about Coną́ke, so that the people there shall know that one of the soldier police has come. When you arrive there, you will see a longhouse where all your relatives are waiting for you. These shall take you to the leader of the ghosts. Then he will say to you, "What did you do while you were alive? If you did well while living, then you will remain here for four years. After that you will go to remain with the Great Father. If you did wrong on the earth, you must remain here all the time." When you go before the Great Father, say to him, "All that was mine I left with my relatives on earth. Of all that the Great Father gave to me, I used but little. The remainder I left for my people that they might grow stronger. This I did so that they shall live their allotted time on earth." When, after four years, you go to the Great Father, say to him: "Send my relatives on earth, those who remain alive, plenty of game and fruits, and all manner of foods. Give them success in warfare and let their days be long and healthful."

See, "Journey to Spiritland, Version 9."

37 (reformatted and corrected text)

In this way we were created. First came the four bears. Each bear was colored differently than the others. The first bear was named Kunúga. He was a red bear. The second bear was named Heną́ga, and he was a green bear. The name of the third bear was Hagága, the yellow bear. The fourth bear was named Naxíga, and he was a white bear. And they talked together, and said, "In this way shall we live, we of this genealogy, from this time on." So they went on until they came to the Red Banks. That is where the Thunder Band came and sat perched on the limbs of a white oak tree. Then the leader of the Thunder Band said to the bears, "Fix for us a place that we may come down from this tree and live on the earth." It was then that they saw a rainbow. The leader of the Bear Band then pointed to the rainbow. Then he said, speaking to the Thunder Band, "You should always live under that rainbow. We shall always help you people." Then the bears fixed a place on the earth so that the Thunder Band could come down and live there. It was a mound which they made for the Thunder people to live on. Then the bears made a mound upon which they themselves might live. "Now we shall live with you and take care of you people for all time," they said to the Thunder Band. "Who are you people?" inquired the leader of the Thunder Band. "You should call us Cónąke, that will be our name," said the bears. Then the bears left that place and went through the woods. By the banks of a river they went. Then four wolves came that way. They saw the bear tracks on the sand bar. "These are the tracks of our friends," said the Wolf Band, "let us follow them."

See, "Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 12."

38 (reformatted and corrected text)

At last they came to the place where the bears were resting. "Well, we are your friends," said the wolves. "Yes," said the bears, "Let us be friendly." Then the wolf leader said, "As long as we live, if you ask us to do a favor for you, we shall do it." "Good," said the bear leader, "that's the way we shall do. When either of us asks a favor of the other, it shall be done. This is the way our children shall do after we are gone. They should never refuse to serve each other in this way." This was the agreement of friendship between the bears and the wolves when they first came to this world. "This will give us strength," they said, "so that we and our grandchildren shall have health and long lives. And one of our children will leave us some day. When this one dies, you wolves will take care of us. So we shall take care of each other. We will handle each other's dead, so that the ghosts will not be harmed. That is how it will be, so that worms and vermin will not molest the body. "Yes," said the wolf leader, "that is how it will be. We shall bury your dead and you shall bury our dead." Then the bear leader pointed to the rainbow. Then he said, "Those are our colors, the four colors of the bears. You see how we have these colors on us.That is how we shall paint the forehead and chin of one of our children when we lose him (at death). Place three different colors on the forehead and paint the chin with blue earth. So shall our child will be known to his relatives (the departed). In this way it shall be done by our grandchildren. We are going to fix or place on the earth where we can bury this one. This, our friend, is going to be buried. Whenever we die, our friends, the wolves, will bury us. Now let the leader talk to this dead man. Then we shall

See, "Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 12."

39 (reformatted and corrected text)

sing to him." "This is how we shall live," said the bear leader. "This is how our grandchildren shall live after us. Look at the rainbow. There are our colors. This will bring us all good luck. In this way we shall live out our lives in full. We shall live under the rainbow. That will be the shape of our houses. So we shall have health and long lives."

See, "Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 12."


  Young man then gives feast – a winter feast –
a war bundle feast – gives buckskins in winter time
but not in summer time. Summer feast should
take place in August, when corn is ripe.

  Bear band gives feast (húnsuwähan)
first of January.                    (bear  feast)
  Spring festival (May) –(          ?
    good success in season's activities:   pray for crops
  Fall festival (October) –
    good success in season's activities.




Stick with mark for every moon,
Hõtc wí tconi — la (First bear moon)
Hõtc i(•)wákʌni — la (Last bear moon)
Wakekihu‘e wi — la (raccoon month)
hóhilokína wi la — (fish run moon)
Mãtawós hi la ——— (drying ground moon)
Mãk’ĕ´ wi la ——— (digging time
                                    (corn planting)
Waƙótcĕrĕ ——— (corn sprouting)
Warotcũ´ wi la — (opening ripening corn)
huzázʌke — certain kind of bird.
tca máᵋn(i h)a hó wi la –


Death rituals: —
  (Certain ones who know old traditions + myths
have privilege to give speech to dead)
  "My (brother, sister, uncle or etc.) You are going to
leave us and go away from this earth. From the time
we firsts came into this earth, if you have anything
which you leave not used, we shall benefit from that. From the time we were
created, I am going to paint you according to our
custom. When you get there, you must tell them
         Before this speech, relatives come round and
gather to hear the speech. He talks to them that
the time the bear clan originated, they had a
very clear day. He talks to console them.
Not to keep over dead. If they do keep, it will
make him weak and he may stumble on the
road to the place where he is going. And
then he paints the face of the dead.
Then he
sings a song for him. (Song. V). Then he
paints face of dead. He explains to those
present the symbolism of the painting. "This
is how we lived in the beginning. There were four
colored bears when we were first created.
And one of our people was gone (died). He painted bears according to colors of bears, and
when he starts from here, on the west going trail,
whoever he meets will recognize him as one of
bear clan. And they will say that they know
by the paint on his face who he is, and they will
say, there comes one of the tconʌ́ke, and one
of our soldiers. They will hear him singing
this song and and will recognize him by that.



Song: I
  Hotcʌ̃´khiṫĕ, H[...]tci[..´.]k[...]ite hitca•hohe —
  Winnebago coming               he is coming
    Song II.
na.     tconʌ́kĕ
mã́[...]na howatci wā
      bear clan
      is coming out of the ground

  Record = I — Song I [...]
    is sung by leader to dead.
  man. It is also sung by dead man on road
  west.      Song = Wanahíƙnãkiwa.
  Record: I song II.
When this song is sung, mourners
may weep, but must not weep any
more after song is finished.
    (tconakeja mando waho he na)
  Record II, song I = same as I song I.


42b (reformatted and corrected text)

That we are to have the benefit of what you did not use while you were living, we place a bundle of tobacco in your left hand. When you come to our old grandmother, before you come to the village of ghosts, give half of the tobacco to the old lady, and when you get to the village, give the rest of the tobacco to the leader there, and tell him what I am telling you now, that we must get the benefit of that which you did not use while living. You must not stay with us but

See, "Journey to Spiritland, Version 10."

43 (reformatted and corrected text)

four nights before leaving us. On the fourth night, four persons will take you to the village of the dead. Just before you come to our own grandmother's lodge, you will see a fireplace, that of an evil spirit. They will guide you safely past that fire. Go straight by this, but you come to evil. Then you will come to the lodge of our old grandmother. They call that old lady "grandmother." You will come to her lodge. She will know that you are coming. As soon as you reach her door, she will invite you to come in. She will  ask you to sit opposite her. She will say, "Grandson, did your relatives tell you anything to ask me?" You shall say, "Yes, they tell me to ask you something, because I made them feel bad when I left. They say, because our Great Father above gave us long life, I left them before I used up all the Great Spirit promised us, that we should live a long life. They begged me for this life that they might have what I had not lived up." The old lady will say, "That is true, what they said to you. It's true that our Great Spirit above gave me power and strength and put me here to keep the fire burning here, that the fire might never go out, and cannot be extinguished by any

[out of position:] ... She will cook some food for you. And when she cooks, she will place it in a wooden bowl with a wooden spoon. You should ... [insert after "it is my duty to ask you these things" in 44.]

See, "Journey to Spiritland, Version 10."

44 (reformatted and corrected text)

of the four winds, that they should benefit from my being here forever. Our Great Spirit placed me here to ask such questions, although I know beforehand what you are to ask, it is my duty to ask you these things." [insert sentences from 43] only eat four mouthfuls and thank our grandmother. "Grandmother, you are right. This is what they meant when they told me how to do it. That which I do not eat should be returned to my relatives who remain alive. That they may be strong and that none may follow me soon." Then give her tobacco. Then she will thank you. And she will say, "The Great Spirit has placed me here to do this. I am going to do it to you, because it is my duty. And I am going to take something out of your head. This is the brain that I take from your head. This is so that you will not wish to go back to your relatives. And from there, when she lets you go, you will go on to the village of ghosts. And when you get there, where the chief is, he will ask you the same questions as were asked by our grandmother. You must give tobacco to the chief and the chief will say the same as the old lady said. And from there they will show you where to find your relatives there, of the Bear Clan. You will find them in a long lodge, you grandfather, grandmother, sisters, brothers — all will be there.

See, "Journey to Spiritland, Version 10."


Ceremony at the grave: –
    After the body was lowered into the grave, the leader
  began again to talk to the relatives. Then he
sings song to dead.
  Song: –
      Nãkúla howátci.
        path   coming down
    Speaks to relatives + then to dead man.
    My brother (etc). You will wait four days and
  then go on to that place where the dead are.
    He tells them all to step over the grave, every
  one must do this, after song is finished. He
    Wolf clan, supposed to do all labor connected
  with death. They are pall bearers and burriers.
Leader speaks to them of meeting of bears and
wolves in first days. He explains to them
the first time they met, the agreement they made
in friendship. If they handle body, no
vermin will molest the body (this is to console
relatives that are there). This done, they all
step over the body just before it is covered.
    Just before song is sung, when he tell them
  to step over body, he also tells them that
after stepping across body they must
return directly to homes without looking
back. And he also told the dead man not
to look back after starting on his journey
west. This was so that there would be no


sickness and death among his relatives.
When they get home, they all, men + women
loosen their braided hair and put on old
disreputable clothes. This a sign of mourning.
This not only done by relatives, but by all village.
This for four days + nights. In those days, clans
all respected each other. Each clan had its own
place in the village. When a man died, one
was sent about the village to notify other clans
that there was a death. This messenger and
his job were called heũ´. Any man might
serve in this capacity. In those days, there
were good medicines and real medicine men, and
people seldom died unless they were very old.
First evening of four days they burn stick
at one end and place it, prone, at head of
grave. Towards evening, all relatives father food
and take it to dead man's house and they
begin to make prepare a feast. Pall bearer leader
goes and invites noted warriors to eat supper with
mourners. When everybody arrives, the food is
served. This all arranged and controlled by band
pall bearer (called wanaƙiƙé). Serves
everybody. Puts all kinds of food, together with water,
in one bowl for the dead. Leader of dead man's
family clan, makes a speech to the guests. He
has tobacco + water. he says he will pass tobacco
and water to pall bearers. The pall bearer leader
receives the tobacco, talks and explains that he is
going give these to one of the brave warriors there


The warrior lights the pipe, passes the pipe
around clockwise (way the sun goes). Every one
there smoke the pipe in turn, men + women, no
children, then the warrior drinks water from
bowl and then passes it around for all to
sip, clock wise. While tobacco + water his going
around, another pall bearer distributes food
to dead man's relatives. Others then served and
they all eat. After this, the meal over, the
warrior who lit pipe, takes what tobacco is
left over, and recites war experiences. Then
he passes tobacco from to another warrior who
does same. The same is repeated several times.
Program for 1st evening short, in order that
mourners may sleep. All warriors who tell
of those they slew in battle, direct the souls
of these dead to guide dead man on his way to
village of dead and to carry brand as torch
which was placed on grave. Have control
over the souls of those slain in battle.
The dish of food for the dead placed outside
for him to consume. The burn stick has the
soul of fire which is to accompany dead on
his journey.
    Second + third nights like 1st.
    Fourth night is all night wake. Each
warrior tells new war stories and direct dead
of those slain in battle to guide and care for
soul of departed. At the end of fourth night
there are four burnt sticks on grave.


    Pall bearer cut grave-post (of oak, 6″ to 8″ in
diam., painted with red paint symbols — like Radin)
and set up at head of grave. Tells of deeds of bravery
at war. Stood about three feet high (nawáka‘
= stake). This stick set up fifth morning.
  More on fourth night: —— (with same repetition)
    Towards evening guests gather from all over village.
  Bring consoling presents to dead man's people. Now
12 or 13 pieces of calico, and other things such as
garments, blankets and food. Pall bearer spreads
out food, takes a dish with all things cooked, and
water passed ‸ to leader, last to pall bearer by leader and
one of brave men by pall bearer. And sets it to
one side. Then tobacco + water passed to brave
man, as on first night. The leader of bear clan
  thanks people for all the food + clothing given to
mourners. "I am satisfied and consoled by
all that has been done. Some things that are
funny will be told and I will laugh at them.
Then pall bearer appoints one of thunder clan
to be wanikíhoga. Thunder leader clan has first
of all clans, leader clan, so he was only one
who could serve in this capacity. He is to
make a speech and then to dead man. Give
him directions for his journey to start ready
next morning. He says same as the
bear leader said on first night; same in
detail. This thunder leader then hands
pipe and tobacco ‸ + bowl of water to one of brave warriors. Pipe
is passed around as before. Then pall bearer


      fixes dish of food for dead and sets it outside.
    No one allowed to sleep on this night. All
stay awake and listen. All eat, then warriors
tell war stories.
in proper

       The wawaƙíhoka, when he speaks, all
perfectly quiet while listening to him, out
of respect to him. He is the village chief.
Great respect always shown for chief and his
entire family.
      All night tobacco passed tobacco to warriors
    who tell stories. A lot of tobacco is on hand
in a bowl. This is set in front of speaking
warrior, and any one present can fill pipe
there from and smoke.
      About midnight, if there is anything of
    earlier feast is left over, it is passed out again
and eaten by all present. First feast was 
a matter of giving and helping self. Second
feast was distributed among the guests by
pall bearers. Different in this way from 1st 2nd +
3rd night.
      When morning comes, first break of day, they
    of the have breakfast, after passing pipe and
water as before. Light breakfast. Take some
sticks (nanóha chips), 13 game markers, prepared
by relatives of dead. They give one branch
to pall bearer and 1 to some one who
is to lead players of other side – probably one


of dead man's friends. Probably play moccasin
game (waku tcékikok) or dice + bowl (kã súk).
Leaders pick sides. ‸ one side leader Takes one of calicos, or similar
element of the gift and present it to our brave men
who told of war feats, for him to keep. Then
he tells of war feat, and when he finishes he gives
present to his niece. The other game leader then
does the same by another warrior, who responds
in the same way. The game then begins.
The winner gets all the calicos + distributes them
to his men who played with him. Each then
passes his share of prizes to sister, aunt, niece, etc.
Another game = na máƙkegutc. A special bow arrow
is prepared of dog wood, split in three pieces on end
so that won't hurt anyone. Shoot at bundle
of straw tied to end of pole and swung in
broad circle by one. Three-pointed arrow sticks
in hay rather than going thru. Man's game.
Use ready bow. When man hits bundle,
his female relatives handle bow to derive good
from it. Women also scramble for arrows to
get benefit from the men's powers, to derive
power there from. Treated notch end of
arrow by shaving it in such a way that
the spent arrow came down flat. This
called na máƙiniƙini. Sometimes play
lacrosse (tcapanalu/kísik/).
                club   Lacrosse
    Before games, time of eating. They dressed up
mourners, put good clothes on and braided hair.


They then watched game. Wolves or others can do this,
even members of bear clan.
    If man's wife or woman's husband died,
  small tent erected and bereaved enter and fasts.
    When the first child died is same way, fast
  four days, dare not look at clouds. Charcoal
on forehead, on cheeks of women. Charcoal
and because fire was made by god and charcoal
symbol of fire. Therefore sacred. This ceremony
is performed only for mate or children, and is
only performed 4 times by any individual.
This fast period. wakitĕ́cäni. If
during this period the mourner should break
a stick, living crops would grow weak and
fail to come to fruition. In morning, just before
games, wash, eat, dress, and go out and watch
games. Mother-in-law can take children and raise them
if she wants to, and she generally does. When
they are grown, man can again have control
of children if he so wishes.
    Member of medicine lodge, often four years
  widowhood or widowerhood, gets some one to
take dead one's place in lodge, and then is
free to marry.
    After mourners are dressed up again, with garments
  given by relatives of dead wife or husband, or by
anyone in other cases, they sit thru games, then
take off new garments and give to relatives. There
get other new clothes of like value and give to
original givers.


About the post: —
  If a warrior died, had to prepare post of white oak
for him. This talked over after games are over.
A certain day ahead appointed for this. No one
but warrior had such posts. ‸ Chief Pall bearer invites
all warriors to come to meeting appointed for erecting
post. Feast is held, food provided by dead's
relatives. Meal prepared before noon. Pipe +
water passed around same as on first night.
After feast is finished, he ‸ pall bear appoints three men
to sing and beat the drum. He has post already.
He appoints one who understands how, to mark
the post. This man must be a well reputed
warrior. One who was leader in war first to
dance, but before he dances he tells of dead's
brave deeds in battle. Then the marker sets them
down. When he dances he enacts the event
or events described by him before dancing. Very realistic
  Example: – Man shot in arm — (lame enact) –
flees from foes (Sioux) — falls over log (enacted) —
shoots, while prone over knee – (enacted) – victory
dance. Seen by informant. Then part is retry
Twelve men danced. in the n...g. Dance
around the grave, clockwise. ‸ enacting the brave deeds previously recited.
  Post is set up fourth fifth morning after
games, but not marked until ritual
described above takes place. Twelve men
dance whether man had that many feats
or not.


Song sung during stick ceremony.
  Sung while dancing around grave.
    kora nigéckĕ waŋk la nica-
    O, you are no man (as said to enemies).
    Start with slow time, so they can act it
  out walk slow on way.
    Fast time "ha hó" commence fighting
  acted out.           ha-a yu-hú. = simply a refrain.
Record III ⤴
Record IV⤵         foreign words – probably sauk + fox:
  Hae yu ha hae         ho
  Haya haya wapa ni na wewe să ni
  this order
  Hae yuha hae          hae yuha hae
  hae yu ha hae          hae yu ha ha       ho
  Haya haya wa pa ni na we we să ni   wo
  Hae yuha hae          hae yu ha ha        ho
  ho ya   ha ya —  𝄄𝄅


  If bear man steps on snow with bear foot,
it will be very cold, or heavy deep snow.
  If any clan man kill bears, they lay him
down with head to east, put tobacco on head,
so his spirit can go back to spirit world and
make report. Same with buffalo.
  When hunting buffalo, appointed leader (from
any clans) and he appointed helpers, put up
ceremony for buffalo before hunt. Songs +
dances, pipe passed – Tcéwohʌ̃ = this feast.
Tobacco in fire. Like a buffalo dance which
is called tcé waci. The leader ad[... i ...]es no
jokes or bad words against buffalo.
  tcéḋoc – 2 year old ‸ male buffaloes. They are
much feared. They will retaliate if anything
is said against them. Used to gore horses.
  In buffalo dances, must go counter clock wise;
if you "cut the way," the buffalo will be angry.


Puberty Ceremonies: —
    In the beginning, the thunder clan was first, and
  then came the bear clan. So bear clan originated
from the earth. So he had all the privileges on
the earth. They came to an agreement that the
thunder clan would get the protection from the bear
clan. They would be the soldiers ‸police of the tribe.
The bear soldier leader is overseer of all the village.
Years ago, the U. S. government wanted to make
treaty with Winnebago. Their officers came to
chief in regard to their treaty. He told them
he was not the proper one to see; he had the
authority to do that. He appointed the
Black Bear (Hõ tc sĕ́t ka) handle Indians
side of the conference. This is because agreement
was about land, and thunder clan [had not] originated
from ground. The bears were always the
helpers of the s[...] thunder clan, and had been
given charge of the land. |After that, any
  head of family used to talk to their children
before day break. They told them what happened
in the beginning, to explain the customs. While
he talks to children, he sings four songs.
I Mã léki-he le la – he-ki ne – by bear man
    All living creatures on earth
         hã p ha kelina kikawaõ nále
II. Waŋ kĕ lé ki he de da – by thunder man.
        All the birds and creatures in air.
             hã p ha kelina kikawaõ nále
                 [day arises]     get up.


III hãp hakilína – a ho-hi waŋkʌléginakʌle
   daylight now              the great spirit above
  a hohína
  he said so
    hã p’eha-ki-li-no-|a-ho-lo-he-a-ho-hi
            (3 times)        (4 times) – o he o i
    (waŋkʌléginakʌle a) ho hi na
    in place of first – once then first repeated

II =   wàŋ kĕ le = Record V1  
    waŋ kĕ le kí he le-la  
    waŋ kĕ le ki he le-la  he ki ne    
    𝄆hã p ha kelina ki-i ka wa õ  ne    
                  o he o 𝄇    
I Exactly like this = Record V2  


IV – Hikwána cike | hú ki ni | lo hae oi
       sun          is coming again
    Hã pa ni na   cike    etc.
      light giver
  1 2    
  1 2    
  1 2    
  a   2    
Record VI

III hã p-ha-ki-li-no a ho lo he
    a ho lo he    o he  oi
  waŋ kʌ légi na kʌ le a    ho hi na
  hã p-ha-ki-li-no     a-ho-lo-he
    a ho lo he    o he  oi


  hi kwa na  ci ke  hu ki ni
hu ki ni  hu ki ni
hu ki ni  a
    hu ki ni   oi   
  han pa ni na  ci ke  hu ki ni
  hi kwa na ci ke  hu ki ni  hu ki ni  hu ki ni
a  hu ki ri   oi 

  One of younger generation, boy or girl, when they
heard the words of the old man, they obtain
what he knows so they can tell the next generation
to be handed down from generation to generation.
The old man who is speaking: "That is how they
treated me. I am unable to do any work. I am
only good to sit by the fire. Get naúŋste
(big stick of dry wood for fire, slippery elm preferred –
will last all night). They put one of these on fire
and instruct old man to tell stories of olden days.
The   soŋkĕ́kis’ʌ = to warm old man's back.
That cheers old man so he can remember and
tell of old times. Old man spent most of his
time in early days and saw things which
younger generation have not seen. He
has done some things of which younger generation


do not know, both good deeds and bad.
So they, the young people, are after the old man
to learn of these things. Most people want
to know of good deeds, been that is why they
are after old man, so that he will help the
young to go straight as he had done. So
they might grow old like he did. As soon
as he awoke at day break he shouted to
them "Get up! get up!" Then he sang
four songs (see text) in order. Perhaps
he of the thunder clan. So he can sing that
thunder song for the sake of his clan.
When he has sung, he prays to all the
upper world spirits (birds) and also to the
great spirit above. They all awoke and listened
to the old man. he attracts them so that they
may listen to him. He is the chief, so they
all respect him and get up. One of the
bear soldiers is there. As soon as he hears him
sing, he starts out and tells all that the
chief has awakened singing and all will
have to get up. This soldier is called caller
(wi tcá tca). He awakens everyone. When he
sings second song (——————) he sings
on behalf of all the bearlower world clans (land animals),
and every living animal on earth. Every animal
and insect that inhabits the earth. Even mother
earth (grandmother).


(If bear clan man – he sings 2nd song first.)
And so village all rise and assemble (but stay at home). They all
tell each other (the older people tell the children what
the chief sings + says). When thunder song is sung
and prayers made to above spirits, then includes
great spirit and the sun. When they talk to
their children, they tell them to get up and keep
moving, do something, so that they should
have longer and more healthy lives. The
great spirit wishes this. All things work so
that they may eat. This is the way of all things,
this is what they should do. Great spirit left
everything good for you out of doors not in house.
You will have to go out and get them. That is
why one should paint face with charcoal, so that,
dreaming of some spirit, you will have [...]
life. And some day our people will depend on
you for protection if you have a good dream.
(haŋpa hi(l/r)ina a ho hí na)  (great spirit said to
   great spirit said  daylight now     get up)
(uŋ wa ci da) = life giver he is (great spirit). G. spirit
said this, so you must do what he said now.
Paint face with charcoal and fast. After he
stops singing, he says this ⤴  Great spirit (life giver)
is coming again. It is daylight now. All
try to do something, insects, birds + animals. They
rise and go out to hunt food. Everything
on earth will do this. That's what the
daylight is for; we all, all living creatures
should use it right. Every one is doing it


now.  So the caller, still calling to rouse
everyone. So that heads of family can preach to
children. So young people can fast, especially
when it is winter time. (i hʌ́mpʌna = fasting period).
This word is used when the faster gets desperate and
decides to stick to it until vision comes; when
he means business. Took Bass wood stick from
breast bone to end of fingers, sometimes longer.
This done by young men fasting. Called _______
           .  Stuck end in fire until charred. With
this face was blackened. Fasting took place
in a special hours on outskirts (i hʌ́mpʌna
ho tcí). At place where no women would
come. Medicine bundles were sometimes hung
in this house, so that they would get a
dream from that. Fire in the house. Some
of old men stayed with fasting man and watched
him. The reason why they fast in winter
is that, in summer time, undesirable insects are
present. They come around and fool the one to fast
faster. In winter, if one is fasting, when
wants to get up and eat
those who have war
bundles, hold winter feasts and offer tobacco
to spirits. That is best time to get a dream.
Every evening, the fasters offer tobacco to spirits.
They say wa | kaŋ tcá | tca ƙi li | (appeal to thunder bird,
                    thunder bird  crying
crying for something). When village heard
voices, all kept still. When winter feasts


  were given, they have good chance to "cry for aid"
again. The young man stops fasting and
takes part in feast, then start all over again.
This is good way to "reach" the spirits.
Good chance to "cry for aid" to spirits.
They say: wa ƙo pí ni  ƙtciŋ wiŋ ná hiŋ
                   spirits         I want you
    na tci le na dje  je wa ha dje je
  This is the prayer to the spirits. I want you spirits
to come and bless me. Every one sits perfectly
and listens. Humiliate selves to attract
spirits. Male spirits sorry for them. ‸ When young Man
to eats at warbundle feast, old man who
has had a dream appointed to eat part of
food set before youth before youth can eat
remainder. Old man tells young man what
he dreamed, so youth may obtain same
     Certain time When youth about to enter
ceremonial house, all things in house incensed
with cedar leaves to keep them clean (holy). This
true of all dishes, pots, house walls and everything.
This done just before he comes in.

    When women flow, goes 1st time, they
  are isolated in special house (               )
fast, paint face with two spots of charcoal, must
not look outside house. Sometimes they too


obtain dreams on this first fast. Lasts
4 days. White's grandmother dreamed of
wolf. But in life, some people had no food
and could not catch game. They were starving.
They brought tobacco to old woman and
asked her help. She put tobacco in fire,
to be carried to spirits, and prayed to wolf for
help, for he was a good hunter. Then they
went out and got all the game they could use.
Very important to observe taboos. Woman has
(one taboo, not associated with the story, is
that no young people can eat any food that has
been left overnight from evening meal. No
young man can go see a woman during
menstrual period.)
Own dishes from which to eat (on succeeding
times of flowing when they do not fast. They
can fast if they want to.)
    Wa tcó | naŋkĕ́wĕ –  certain kind of
        green  afraid
fasting. When young man is going to fast.
going to eat green corn or beans first, then
. Place fixed outside of village in
summer time (outside). Same house to fast
in summer time, and this is order of
summer fast. Can fast as many days
as he wants, then can eat fruit, including corn
and squash. If young man fasted in winter
time and had dream. The spirit may ask him
to fast again in summer, so that he can


meet him again and give him a
medicine. Waterspirit often did this.
Thunderbird also sometimes. Thunderbird
has control of all war bundles. So he can
see him again and instruct man to make
up a war bundle.
     (Insert with winter feast 

Reason why feast is held in midwinter: that
because about that time the thunderbirds appear
(hear thunder). That is reason for giving war bundle
feast at that time.

64b (reformatted and corrected text)

One man dreamed of the Heróka. In the early days, if hunters got lost and shouted, certain spirits would shout back and fool the men, like will-o-the-wisp. They would lead them astray. Such spirits are called waŋowáŋke. One man had a dream of the Maŋmaŋni. After that, some other tribes tried to wipe out the Winnebago. They chased the Winnebago into a ravine, but they were afraid to follow them in, so they surrounded them. Above the ravine grew a big oak tree. They planned to cut down the oak so that it would fall on the Winnebago below. The Winnebago began to ask who had a dream that could help them. They found a man who had had a dream of the Heroka. These, when they shot, would say,

See, "The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka."

65 (reformatted and corrected text)

"A ha’ai, a ha’ai, a ha’ai, a ha’ai." He took tobacco and offered it to these spirits, while the others were cutting the oak tree. When the tree began to fall, he said, "A ha’ai," four times, and shot an arrow. It cut the oak tree in half so that it fell on the enemy and killed them, rather than falling on the Winnebago. That is the reason why the old man told them to go and fast, so that some day they would be of service to their people.

See, "The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka."





Clans do not sit



Personal names – men
1 - 4 (before)    
5 - woƙtcomĭ́́nʌka he who sits in ground hole.
            (like bear's nest)
6 - mãpezidehíka mound of earth outside animal hole.
    mound yellow       (like outside bear's hole)
7 - woƙtcahírĭka thought beautiful by everyone
       liked       (like bear cub)
8 - waiƙtcaídĭka he who laughs at one.
            (like at small cub)
9 hũtc´nika bear cub.
10 - pũtculusúpka he who puckers up lips.
           (as when a bear growls)
11 - mãnã́pĕhũna Bear captain
12 - mãnã́pĕƙonoka Village soldier
13 - mãnã́peŋka           "
14 - mãnã́peka           "
15 - mãtckúka (rain)bow
16 - mãnápemaníga walking soldier
17 - hokórohíka He who makes a noise
             (like from inside bear's den)
18 - wojípga short legged bear
19 - wasákaníka (bear of a certain age - prob. 2 yr. old)
20 - hũtcƙĕ́tika big bear
21 - hũtchónonika small bear
22 - hũtcgága white bear
23 - moratcéga He who travels about
24 - moratcáhuga He who comes across the land
25 - hũtcsĕ́p black bear.
26 - har/lamĩ́ka  
27 - nãtísaka he who climbs rapidly.
28 - minʌ́ka he who is seated.


men names –
29.  Nãtckĕ́pĩká He who is good hearted.
30.  Hũtcáka Bear skin
31.  Hũtca ƙúnuka small bear skin
32.  hũtcká bear
33.  wakis´ nap’ĩ́ka shell necklace
           (white on breast)
34.  hũtc á sãnikika One-armed bear.
           (left handed)
35.  mᵋinánaka he who often sits.
36.  hĩkatcapĩnika he who is hard to see
37.  wojípga certain kind of bear
38.  hĩsasáka He who has coarse hair
39.  skĩkiléka He who is heavy.
40.  wacĩgásaka He who is fat.
41.  mãk´skaka He who has white spot on breast
42.  wãwã́kega He who whines (like a bear)
43.  nasânĕ́hika White tree trunks.
           (bark scratched off by bears)
44.  hũtc’tcóka green bear.
45.  anátcuƙĕteka big arm full
           (bears take things in arms)
46.  hũtcnatc´kega bear heart
47.  nâ̮ésawakicisgá broken top – tree
48.  mã̮enukʌ́nʌka ground owner
49.  wacĩsƙega broken stick
50.  hilucĩ́sga drps dropping the fat.
51.  hṹtchũka bear chief
52.  hãhĕ́manika walking at night.


Women's names: —   instead of He who has spotted breast — but
    spotted breast man
5.  hasuwiwĩ́ka she who hunts for fruit
6.  a ska‘´ that which tastes good.
           (like bear meat)
7.  hinũk molatcahówĩka she who travels about.
8.  mãhomorotcã́wĩka she who looks after the land.
9.  Alatc´kewĩka left handed woman
           (bears are left handed)
10.  watokĭ́́wĩka Leave if you don't like it.
           (bearish actions - short tempered))
11.  hinukhatcáilika she who looks in
           (as looking into bear den)
12.  hinukmorohotc´ka she who looks at the land
13.  tcek inekimináka she who ‸ first sits alone
           (like weened cub)
14.  hinuklĕ́ƙirika last year's cub bear
15.  hinukᵋníka girl bear
16.  mãk’éga she who digs in the ground.
17.  tc’ónãketc’ṍwĩga clear weather girl
18.  hũtc ikilúƙega Breeding bear woman.
19.  hũtc´ inuk bear woman
20.  mãhoratcĕ́wĩka woman traveling over land
21.  hatcatcĕ́ƙiwĩka She who is hard to see.
22.  wamiakskáwĩka She who has white spot on breast.
23.  hinũkwátcaƙiwĩka cross woman
24.  wacĩgá fat
25.  hotcã́kiwĩƙetega big Winnebago woman
26.  Sias´ka foot tastes good.
27.  kisĕ́wĕminʌka sit down quietly
28.  tcíkĕliga keeping house
        (like bear den)
29.  piminʌ́ka good sit-down ? seated in good place
                              (like bear in woods nest)


Dogs:—        (cũk = dog) (cũk‘lac = dog's name)
Hagága (same as man's)
tcutcúskanacĩga snapping twig.
cũk‘lac  watoká‘ some kind of bear.
hutckíhiga acorn picker.
hesíkiluĕ’ opening bee hive (has four eyes )
nĩ́tcĕtcĭwoka following edge of water.
watoká‘ kind of bear (should be black)
hũtcnáp‘ bear paw.






  Woman names    
      leġóni wolf band
tconʌ́ke bear band


She dogs: —    
naƙálukãwĩka turn over big rock - woman.
hĕsíkᵋlu’éwĩka opening honey bee nest
haksᵋáka third born girl (see other names)


Games: —
Boys hunt for chipmunk with bow and arrow.
Cleaned ground of all but dirt and
lay chipmunk on dirt.
Then pick up sticks, naming each after some relative, brother, uncle,
etc., until can think no more, and place them in pile beside
dead chipmunk. Then chant wish that it come to life.
Song: — (chant)
ino ke relapõ tco la hoƙ´
Hands placed on earth about animal, palms
down, and earth slightly beaten thereby, while
they chant. Then animal slowly comes to life
and runs away, with boys chasing it.
This is a test of strength of soul – to make
animal alive by wishing.
  Boys shooting bow and arrows (mãilokíƙalĕke)
1st boy shoots arrow so that it lights flat
on ground.
Other boys try to shoot arrows as close to this one
as possible. One getting arrow closest wins.
Sakóro’ṹ   snow snake (never played on snow)
Sumach sticks (beams light) used. 3´ to 4´ long
at time on a field with no vegetation.
Stick very straight. Called sakóro.
Snow snake play. One that lands
farther wins.
Real snow snake made of hickory + shaped .
This game called — sakóroparoƙ´.
Played on snow or ice. Played same as
preceding game.


  Another stick game. (mós’oƙilotci)
                     stick striking mound

Make dry mound – or use one.
Stick thrown like in preceding game, but
bounded off mound. Go very swift.

game with two names: –
Wanaƙékuruk’ĩ = g[h]ost came back
woƙĕ́‸kokilinʌki = ground hole in it
Each boy has hole in ground, large enough
to receive a regular lacrosse ball. One
thrown ball, rolling it on ground toward
holes, while others guard holes. If ball
o o o o o
x x x x x
falls in hole, all other boys run towards
base. One who receives ball in hole picks
it out and tried to throw it hit one of
other boys before he reaches base. If one
boy is hit four times, all boys get four
free shots at him.


Two divisions of people.
  Earth clans   mãnéki hĕlĕla
  air clans – wãkĕléki hĕlĕla
  Exemplified in war bundle feast, where all
  earth people sit on one side and all air people
sit on other side.
Eating race = walutc sák’ũ.
  One from each side participates in a race
  to try and eat first all of one of two equal
lots of meat. This is symbolic of trying to
kill the first enemy or take the first scalp.
A real race. No arrangement of winner. When
one wins, every one ululates with hand to
declare winner.
  Certain spirit for each spirit part of meat
  1. Thunder spirit
2. Sun
3. so on.
  Each part placed before one who represents
  the spirit, and his
  Bow + arrow placed for someone who had
  dream of "shooter" spirit (see back notes).
Probably different man.
  Buffalo dance was another man's dream.


Village organization
  bear band leader = tconʌkehũk´


  give a feast when naming young children.


     Leader, consulted about giving name to child.
Parents give feast. No matter whether girl or boy.
All other bands invited to that feast. All food
together in one pail. Each leader (of bands) brings
present of some kind. Any kind of present; food,
clothes, trinkets, and so forth. These to parents
of child. Leaders of each bands all eat together
from one pail. Others eat separately as [...].
Reason for parents, must tell to child's people
dog names +, perhaps, personal names. These are
their own band names. This child receives these
names for himself and for his dogs, although
they are names of another band, out of friendship.
The parents are to pay for the naming rite.
This feast is called — nĩk’tcʌ̃k lac ún‘.
                             (giving name to child)
wat’ṹne‘ = gift of names, medicine etc. goes
under this term. nãp´ hi lu ƙatc = asking for
gift of "idols" (fetishes), like white buckskins for
war bundle ceremony. The leader gives bear band
name. Sometimes he gets present for this, usually
I think. He would always know the right
name. Gives choice of several names to child's
parents – choice from four or five names.
Dogs given names in same way – have to get
name from leader – but feast unnecessary.
No names for horses like this.


   Adoption have nothing to do with clans.
Stranger adopted as son or brother, but not as
clan brother. Present may be given to leader,
if he is much liked, and stranger, adopted into
family, may be given a bear name. This
does not make him a member of bear clan. He
can not obtain membership in bear band in any
way. The children
    The children of any woman work for maternal
uncle. They have a right, though, to take anything
that uncle owns. This work exchanged for
materials so taken. Same with girls. Maternal
uncle can demand that she make mats, etc.
for him. She could also claim property in
uncle's house. Meat shot by her husband
must be brought to maternal uncle, also. All
family profit by this meat, but maternal uncle
is most favored. Given powers to distribute.
Meat belonged to him personally, could dispense
with it as he pleased.
    War bundle. Bundle descends to properly
trained man from same band. Could not
be son, but brother's son sometimes.
Man chosen as one attentive to learn, and
one who gives leader gifts, is good warrior,
or has other admirable traits.


     Boy's mother's brother may have war bundle.
He may be a great worker for bundle leader.
This is regular thing. He could not become new
bundle leader, because he belongs to different
clan, but he works for maternal uncle.
Wakíƙʌna = ‸one who waits on his mother's brother.
Walutcʌ́ = one who serves maternal uncle at feast.
Two terms interchangeable to some extent.
    leƙk’ĩ́ = the pail + bag carrier = the second
war leader, or war leader's helper. A boy who
served his maternal uncle as walutcʌ́ might
also become leƙk’ĩ́ to his maternal uncle.
    dotc’ṹwũŋ?k = war leader. This job
obtained through vision of puberty ceremony. Not
assumed, according to spirits, until a certain age
and experience obtained. He is owner of war
bundle. Dream dictates his war movements.
This all done at time of puberty ceremony.
    Often a war party, with small attack in view,
sneaked off, unknown to rest of village, to
perform the raid. Return was open and
well advertised.
    One whose relatives have been killed by
unknown enemy, may blacken face and fast
for several years, intermittently, some times four years,


in order to get vision from warrior spirit
giving him information and power to
intelligently and successfully seek out enemy
and punish him. His dream gives him
right to use war bundle in same band.
Others in band had right to ask for and use
war bundles within band.
    Most war bundle dreams are of Thunderbirds.
    Never heard of war bundle being "killed,"
its party unsuccessful and war bundle taken,
or ceasing to function.
    One bundle to clan unit in village, although
other dreams might contribute war club, or
bow and arrows.
     If whole village goes on war path, bear
man participating may go to bundle leader of
his man and ask for a small object from the
bundle to take with him. This to bring him
success and and to represent his clan's bundle
at the front.
    War feast, all meat usually cooked right
in ceremonial place, when five or six fire places.


Last fire place for women at W. end.


Man who gives feast, his ‸maternal nephews are waiters,
get wood, water, etc., cook and waiting; in
fact, do all the work. Dance, too. These
waters ‸at feast = wa lu tcʌ̃´.
    Wouldn't talk to wife's parents or brother.
Would tease paternal aunt of wife, or wife's sister.
Same with wife – she would tease my
brother and and my aunt, call them brother in law
and sister in law. tease = nacítc.

= those whom I may tease -
       (either used).

     If man's wife is having child, man is
not to stay still. He is to move around, help
with the chores, or anything so long as he
keeps in movement. If he stops still, wife
will have difficult and prolonged labor.
If he moves about, labor will be less
painful and delivery hastened. Whoever
waits on mother at childbirth, and
cuts the umbilical cord, keeps that knife
as their own. This is usually a new knife.
No reciprocal help in the work between
different clans. Own relatives do waiting.
    Umbilical cord is dried and placed in
buckskin bag, suspended from hoop of
cradle before baby's face. This is [so] the baby
can find it when it gets large enough to


look around for things. It is supposed that
it is looking for the cord. Cord = le tcá wa.
    When boy is able to shoot with bow and arrow,
he goes out and hunts. The first animal of or
bird which he succeeds in bagging, he brings
home. It is saved until the next war bundle
feast (dried), no matter what size the bird or
animal, and it is specially cooked and given
to some man who is powerful dreamer. He eats
the gift and tells of his dream and prays for success
for the boy as a hunter in the future. He thus
gives some of his spiritual power to the young
hunter. tco ní wa t’e hi = name for this first kill.
    If anyone place bow and arrows on ground,
no woman or girl must step over them. If so,
it weakens the power of those implements. A
boy or man may step over them as they please
without harm to the weapons.
    Stone heads used but not made by Winnebago.
Made by "worms" (have pinchers) like dung beetle.
These made stone points. Some say men made
them, but never heard old man say this.
    First arrow made for small boy =
This called wa ki lí gutc (= "for shooting insects").
Second arrow made for larger boys, somewhat
accustomed to use of bow = = mãipáƙĕtĕ
                                                                 big headed arrow.
Third = regular pronged point
    (a) mãpá’ũ = of bone, horn   (b) mãísu = flint stone arrow
                              [...]                             [...]           [...]


    2nd used for killing birds and small game.
    3rd used for big game and in war.
    1st + second arrow made of hickory.
    All arrow hafts of hickory or dog wood shoots.
    If arrow bow is either too hard to pull, or
too loose, it is much harder to shoot and
results in less accuracy.

Sometimes markings on clothes (painted)
would indicate the nature of a man's puberty
dream. Don't know details.
  Sometimes, boys and young men swallow
beating hearts of dressed turtles, as an answer
to a challenge of their bravery. If the heart
stays down, the youth is brave. If it comes
up again, the youth is not brave. This done
in spirit of rivalry.
  Winnebago did not eat crayfish, frogs,
snakes, crows, seagulls, mice.
  Ate skunk, dogs, muskrats, eagles,


   Dogs eaten at warbundle feasts frequently.
Dog fattened beforehand. When cooking
food for this ceremony, when it was necessary
to turn the meat in the pot, so that it would
all be cooked evenly, great care was taken
not to spill a single drop of the broth. The
waiter spilling broth in this way would miss
his enemies in warfare.
  As many portions of meat were prepared as
guests were invited. The number of guests
were registered by notches on a stick (nanóƙã)
with notches. Each guest, therefore, had to eat
all that was set before him, in order that
no bit might be wasted — otherwise couldn't
succeed in combat with enemy.
  When a man takes a scalp, he may ‸give it to bundle leader and say to
bundle owner, "When you hold feast, I want
to have the best, because of this scalp." Then,
at the feast, choice meat is placed at his disposal.
He eats what he chooses and gives remainder
to his aunts, sisters, and nieces. They eat rest.

Or, if he wanted to, scalp giver could take
some of meat home to family.
Scalp-giver is called — ki kí li.
  Meat feast for war dance.
  Maple syrup + some vegetable for buffalo dance.


Return of soldiers from battle:—
    The leader of the war, takes men out against enemy
he [...]ts puts up reward (waiƙéwe), divides reward
into four parts, to go to four best fighters. War
leader stays back with bundle, lets other do
actual fighting. If any scalp enemy, he will
rush back to leader to get first reward. This
done until the four rewards are won. Every one
should do his best in order to get a share of
the reward. Each tries to excel over the others.
That is the reason why, when they had a
feast, they dared not drop any meat, or even
soup, when preparing or eating. That is how, on account of
the war, the winner has prospects for getting
one of rewards.
    After the war is over, when several of enemy
are killed, must make haste to get away. Ran
for four days to evade enemy, without
stopping. ‸Did not even stop to eat. After this, upon arriving home, had
a ceremony wa r/lo háp nãk gi gi – All must
                       (war bundle)
run about village, clockwise, four times, following
him who won first prize, who carries war bundle
on shoulders. The four prize winners, paint
their faces with earth. Mãkáƙhikik’ũ‘
= the four who have rewards. Manúiƙkʌnʌk
= running about in circles 4 times.


Most of war bundles originated from Thunder
birds. That is the reason; when the thunder-
birds came on earth, they always wanted to
circled around before lighting. They went
according to the action of the thunder birds,
the patrons of war. When the warriors came
back, after this circling ceremony, those at
home expecting them, these some of these received
presents of scalps from the returned warriors.
They appoint somebody to ‸receive scalps. namṗósa =
[...] stick or pole, topped with fork – of white
oak, to hang scalps and war bundle on
this. This erected in opening. When scalps
are to be presented to man, he must put up
war bundle feast. he must have war bundle,
but not of same clan. Pole = E side
of feast house, before door. This done,
all circle about the house once, led by
1st, 2nd, 3rd + 4th prize winners and then
war leader, and 6th lĕ́ƙk’ĩ (leader's helper),
in order as named. Helper is nephew of
leader. Can not be an[y]one else than sisters'
boy, or aunts' boy. When this last circle
was made, all assembled to watch. Circle
ends at post with all present to watch.


Then those who won rewards, all of different
clans; an old man volunteers to sing for them
a certain kind of song – wa la háp nã wã
                                    war bundle - | song
        (does not know this song)
    One song sung for each clan represented among
prize winners. If all of same clan – one song;
if 2 of 1 clan, and others of 2 other clans – three
songs; thus, from one to four songs sung.
Old man who sings selected because of his
prowess as warrior or war leader in early days.
Song's brought him with war-bundle dream.
    While these songs are being sung, a certain
man appointed to give war cry (wakᵋtcĕ́wã)
                                            informing thunderers.
That means "giving war cry." He leads with war cry‸.4 times
others all join in, including watchers. After
this ceremony is over, war leader tells them how
to dress. One eagle feather to a man getting first
prize. If captures man, can paint his body
all red, and he can wear about his neck a
necklace of certain kinds of leav weed
(wã ki lu skĭ́́tc) = prisoner tie. This is kind
of grass, braided and worn about neck. Skunk-
hide garter (kũskĕ kuwákiske) to any of
                   skunk  | garter
four prize winners. Only one garter worn by each


man. Don't remember which side. There can
be worn on ceremonial and full-dress occasions
from mans arm by these honored soldiers. The
man who gets 1st prize = sa r/la hi ní go hi.
                                          mat  | became father
                                                     ( .. ? .. )

These four 2nd, 3rd + fourth prize winners called – wãkhoínãkʌla
                                                                              lay brand on enemy.

In regard to ho tcʌ̃´ka la (Winnebago)
  In Oklahoma, made sign of big voice.

    After he tells them how to dress, the leader
informs sisters, aunts, nieces and 1st cousins on
mother's side and his daughters, to gather
dress elements ‸.and goods and l He is going to give a
bundle. feast and give presents to somebody. Going
to give scalps to these female descendants. He
says, "to her I put up a feast, any tie, if I have
anything to spare, I shall have it passed to
these female relatives."
Then scalps and goods
are then presented to ‸war bundle leader of another clan, who
is asked to remember ‸maternal female relatives of donor
when he gives war bundle feast and "has something
left over" in way of food.
    The four prize winners give prizes to their sisters
aunts or aunts' daughters, etc. The leader's helper
gives the "pail," pot in which he cooked for war
party, to his sister, or next maternal female relative.
These women receive all the prizes and the pail.


When these women get‸these presents, they appreciate his
safe return with prize of honor. They are proud of
such men, and they get fine blankets or other
choice goods and bring and place on uncles, brothers
shoulder. Then poor ‸destitute old men or old women may
come and take such fits from uncles mans shoulder
and keep these articles. These same women
unbraided their hair in mourning in honor of
brother or uncle; make themselves humble
before these brave relative warriors.
    The prize winners, upon return from war, paint
face ‸and bodies with common dies, as said before.
    Scalp dance then lasts four nights.
S[c]alp dance called = wakᵋtcé wa ci. Scalps +
                                       winner's  | dance
bundle on pole for four nights. Dance held in
At noon, scalp dance held about
pole. Women dance with scalps. Bundle inside.
Towards evening, at sunset, dance again, this time about
tent rather than about pole, and then, when
coming to pole, enter and dance about
inside of lodge, once around lodge, 1 time around
inside. As soon as the ceremony is over, the
scalps and associated presents are turned over
to the war bundle man selected from another
clan. This stunt is called – feeding his
own war bundle (wa l/ro hʌ́p wa lutc gigi)


After dancing around inside once, all sit
down. gi ki l/rí hi lĕ = man receiving
scalps from and associated presents. Two
different war bundles
If this man can not
be present, one of his nep assistants represents
him in this ceremony.
    After all settled down, scalps offered to
man, who spreads his war bundle down before
him. Scalps suspended to stick (wõkʌnosúkhi)
                                                   (man | head | on)
like snakes at Wis. rapids. Then    (lo skĕ)
go on with ceremony. Scalp receiver then
goes thru same preliminary ceremony with bundle
as White did. Gives tobacco to bundle fire,
makes prayer and burns cedar leaves. He thanks
spirits for what is received from the war
leader who celebrates his victory. Giver and
receiver sit opposite each other, with fire between.
Bundle of receiver put away, others are put away.
Never on ground except during ceremony. Then set of dances.
      They prepare for food for feast. Waiters
prepare food. Giver speaks to receiver, telling
him of gift and of what he expects in return.
He also tells him he will offer him what is
being prepared in way of feast. Then all
of food placed before receivers. Dish of food
set aside for scalp. Don't know name, so
say, "Our friend should have something to


eat about this time." Somebody appointed
to eat this food with the scalp, in honor of
scalp. This man must be warrior, usually old
man or man of recognized bravery. No name.
Dish is placed near war bundle. He sits there
and eats the food for the scalp.
    Receivers distribute food placed before him
amongst maternal female relatives. He then,
after feast, thanks given. Says, they should
receive good health and long life for observing
these old customs. Whoever prays always
asks spirits, if they want another war to be
consummated, to make weapons sharper than that
of enemies.
    Wo ná kʌ le hi r/lu ká na = spirits prayed
to, origination of ‸war bundles. They are the ones
who have the power to give whatever is asked
when tobacco is offered them. They promised
to make weapons sharper than those of enemies.
That is why it is asked. Also ask to have
long, happy life. Prayers all made thru
fire. Fire carries message to spirits. This
because fire was given by great spirit to
act as mediator to spirits.
    After all eat, another dance each
important man thanks donor for feast, including
receiver. Then another dance after they


all get thru talking. Receiver then packs up
bundle and hangs it up. But scalp remains
on pole. This new dance called
hokiƙéle waci.
catching up  | dance
    When starting for war, everything must
have its proper place, in order; for instance,
no one might drink without order from leader.
No guns shot without order form leader. This
is meaning of the name of the dance. After
war is over, and came home, this dance is
to catch up with spirits of men they killed in
battle. Previous to this, warriors might be
weak and fall down; but after holding
this dance, warriors would be free from weakening
influences having source in ghosts of slain
enemies. Hence the name, catching up dance.

92b (reformatted and corrected text)

There was a war one time out west. One hundred Winnebago went west to fight the Sioux with U. S. troops. They took their warbundles along. Later the Sioux said that they were overcome by something, that they fell on their knees are were helpless. They were sick from this for about two years. Little Priest of the Wolf Band was the Winnebago warleader. He lost his horse one day, and went looking for it. He was

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

93 (reformatted and corrected text)

attacked by forty of the enemy. He was shot five times in his body. They captured him. He had lost so much blood that he had become unconscious, to they captured him. Two men were on each arm, thrashing him with coup sticks. When he came again to his right mind, he saw his gun lying by his side. He seized it and rose to his feet. Then all the men left him, and could not meet this one holy man. They all cried to be delivered from the spiritual forces which they met. They were overcome, and the leader escaped. The Warbundle Spirit had been fighting for him. He shot them as they fled. Some spirit had promised this man to their leader. They then said, "Is this the man who was given to you, our leader?" He said, "I will get this man. He was given to me by a spirit." "Don't do it," said his assistant leader, "he has killed too many of us already. He is a holy man." But the leader insisted. He came up charging on his horse. The Winnebago leader shot him and he fell. The Winnebago then cut off his head and showed it to the enemy. The U. S. troops were seen coming, so all the Sioux fled, but were nearly all killed or captured.

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

94 (reformatted and corrected text)

There were Pawnee, Omaha, Winnebago, and whites in this army. One man had a very fast horse. This Winnebago was Jackson Breeze. He came first to where the wounded Indian was. The wounded man fainted when he saw his friends coming. He said, right there among the boys, "One of you boys has some of my friend (whisky). If I get some of that, I'll be all right." They refused to give it to him. Still he called by name the one who had it, and begged for it. It was finally given to him. The whites were angry that so many should pick on one, and mutilated the corpse of the Sioux leader. (This was just before 1870). They took him home, carried and cared for by white soldiers. He asked them the next morning to put up a Grizzly Bear Dance, so that he could doctor himself. The men sung Grizzly Bear Songs for him. The put up sticks to represent a lodge. They put up a small mound where the warbundle is usually placed. Then they built a fire. They would dance counter-clockwise around the hut, like the Buffalo Dance. They started from the east end, and sang four slow songs, then a second set of songs, fast songs for dancing. At first it took two men to hold him up, later he could dance by himself, starting from the mound. He growled like a bear four times,

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

95 (reformatted and corrected text)

and then he danced all right. He got back where he started, and was entirely well by that time. Every time he came to the mound, he growled four times. This was because he dreamt of a grizzly bear when he fasted as a young man. Every time he came back he was feeling better. The third time he started around, he got to the west end of the tent and then began to dance hard. When again he came to the mound, he took some of its earth and rubbed the place where he was shot. All the other soldiers were watching him. All the bullets came out except the one in his abdomen which was from the Sioux leader. That one didn't heal. The next morning, an officer went to see the wounded man and his wife. He asked what he could do. "You have done well and earned a good name. What can the Great Father in Washington do for you? Your time is not up yet, but I am going to let you go, since you have done so well. From today on, you get a pension of $1.25 per day. Later, you will get more." He gave him a paper so that people at the soldiers' station would treat him right. "So we are all one under Uncle Sam. So whenever you meet an officer, he will treat you right, the same as I did." Then he went back home to his people.

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

96 (reformatted and corrected text)

After the war was over, the Sioux and Winnebago would visit one another. When Little Chief got home, he was still sick. One wound remained troublesome. Little Priest had an Omaha Indian friend who had a Sioux wife. She received word from the Sioux reservation that a great chief council was to be held there. The Omaha man, on the way to this meeting, stopped to see his Winnebago friend. Little Priest had a lodge to which his friend came. When Little Priest was at the war, he had his wife with him. She offered the guest a blanket on which to sit. Little Priest asked, "Did you come here just to visit, or had you some mission?" The Omaha man said, "My wife is a Sioux and we are going to a big Sioux gathering. We just stopped to let you know where we were going." According to the custom, the woman placed food before her guest. Little Priest said, "Tell our friends the Sioux to send word by you. We Winnebago, all but us, are east of here in Wisconsin. One of our favorite games is the game of war. We always like that game. There was a time when we were a numerous people. Before our brother the white man came, we used to like that game. I used to like to play that game with those of other tribes, but I never found any men to play with. All the other Indians of the other tribes used to call me hiníhara, 'elder brother', because I was, among all, the greatest warrior.

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

97 (reformatted and corrected text)

Since our friends the white men came, I have refrained from fighting. Things are changed now. We can no longer play that game. I have heard that the western people still play the war game, but I have been under the white man. I have never had a chance to fight with them. Ever since the war, the U. S. government kept pushing towards the west, farther and farther, till at last they have reached the Níšxoc (Missouri) River. They have pushed us across the Missouri River, and with these soldiers I went, just to look over the country. I saw those people when you were going, the Sioux. I was just looking over the country, without intent to fight. I was not in a position to fight. I made no preparations for battle, according to the customs of my people. I met these people by accident, as it were. I had no war equipment. I was encouraged to fight, but I was under the power of the white soldiers and I could not pursue. Now I am going to prepare to fight these people. I am going to prepare for four years, so that I can fight as was the way of my people, like I used to do at the fourth year. I shall be able to start from here, when the grass

98 (reformatted and corrected text)

go down south where the Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, Iowa and other Indians (in Kansas) are, to unite them to join my war party. After I came back from below, I shall return east to the land of my people (Wisconsin). There are our warbundles. My people I shall unite to join my war party against the Sioux. About that time we will have a real Winnebago band of warriors. We can fight it out to the last stand to a final decision. That's how we Winnebago are accustomed to fight. So you must tell my brothers and friends what I have said, so that they will be ready for me when I come." The Omaha went to the Sioux conference. When he came to the Sioux, they were all camped out in teepees. On one side all tents, on the other, all horses. After he got there, they invited him to eat with the chiefs at their council gathering. The Sioux chiefs invited him to sit in their circle and eat. After the food was eaten, one man rose and said to the Omaha, "You are invited to attend this meeting so that we may ask you a question. All these present came from all over the entire west. They are all chiefs. I was born and raised in this (Sioux) country. I have been through many battles with all the different tribes, but I have not yet found any man to appear. But we met a certain

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

99 (reformatted and corrected text)

man some time ago. We have never known such a man as that one. Most of us were shot by that man, but that was not the worst; for two years afterwards we were all sick from this Winnebago, and many of us died from that sickness. And all these chiefs present from all over the west, want to find out about this brave. We thought you might know something about him; he came from that direction from whence you came. The question you must answer truthfully. If you do not speak truly, you will not be able to start for home. If you speak truthfully we will give you ponies and an escort of one-hundred men for half of your journey. We have some bad boys here, from whom these will protect you. We ask you, do you know this man?" "Yes, I will tell what I know. I will answer the question you ask, and I will tell you the truth. I am not afraid to tell the truth. Even though I am here alone, away from my people, I do not fear to tell the truth. I know whom you met; I really know him well. The man you speak of is my friend. He lives on the path I took to come here and I stopped to visit him and tell him that I was coming up here. He is the man you have shot in five

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

100 (reformatted and corrected text)

places in the body. He is a chief. He has told me to tell you this news. Thus he spoke, 'The Winnebago, people call me. I come from the east (Wisconsin). We all originated in that country before the whites came. Also there are other tribes in that part of the country. The man's game, that's the only game I like. No other game do I enjoy like that game.' He told me that same story repeated by you awhile ago. In search for a brave man, he visited your country, and sought brave men. 'I used to be a warrior but since the white man came, I have been unable to get away to the battles with other tribes. Ever since the white man came, they have pressed us farther and farther west, to the Missouri River, as far as South Dakota and Nebraska. I used to hear that you western people still battled amongst yourselves. I am always anxious to visit you and play (battle) with you, but I was always under white control and could not be free to act. As soon as I crossed the Missouri River, I was invited by the white soldiers to bring a few boys and go with them to battle. About that time we left for your country. We were not equipped to fight. We started out bare-handed. There I saw some people who wounded me. I was very angry at them, but I did not have a chance to harm them, since I was under

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

101 (reformatted and corrected text)

orders of the army. That is why I did not follow and catch up to them and finish the battle which was started. I am still angry. I shall make four years preparations for a long battle. I shall equip myself to fight to the finish this time. In the fourth year, when the grass is high enough to feed ponies, I am willing to give people a chance to fight me.' So he told me to tell you people. And he is not yet in good shape to be able to go around. He goes south to invite tribes living there to join his war party (various Kansas tribes — Delaware, Kick[apoo]s, Sacks, Oto, Pot[awatomie]s, Iowa). Then he goes east to invite his brother Winnebagoes to join his party. There they have war bundles, and they will prepare for war. He will invite the young men, who are always anxious for that kind of a game. They will fight like old time Winnebagoes, to the last ditch. This is what he asked me to tell you people when I got here. I have answered your question truthfully. Now I will tell you something out of my own opinion. You know and I know, too, one thing. We both know this man. I want to tell you why he is going after war implements. One thing I know is this. Their people have that which is handed down from generation to generation. These bundles are of very old origin. If one

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

102 (reformatted and corrected text)

dresses up in those old things, the enemy is overcome with the smell, even against the wind, and are helpless. When they prepared for battle with these war bundles, as you know, one man can fight against forty without being killed. If he goes to prepare for war with these bundles, you will be helpless against them. I am telling the truth as you asked me to. Just because he is my friend, I will say nothing more. Only the truth I have told." When he finished and was seated, all the western people had a big talk about this. Then a Sioux chief arose. He thanked him for telling the truth about this man. He said they would send word to Little Priest by the Omaha. "Tell our brother, you know that the white people keep pushing us westwards at all times. Often we try to stop them in some way for the sake of our children of future generations. It is not a very good piece of ground, but we are fighting for our homes and families. We shall fight as long as we can. We have the same skin. It's no use for us to fight each other. This is a poor land, but if you care to come here with your family, the land, such as it is, is free for you. Go where you choose and live when you will. You see all our ponies. If you choose to come, you may have half of these. Let's make each other

See, "Little Priest’s Game."

103 (reformatted and corrected text)

brothers, of one heart, for the sake of our women and children. Inform our brother of these words, and we shall wait for him to come to us. Let him state a time for a conference with us, so that all the other western people may know and attend." They thanked the Omaha, made him a present and sent him home. Little Priest went south before the return of the Omaha. There he invited the tribes there to join him. Returning from the south, within a short time he died. It is claimed that he died in two ways. Some say he died from the wound he got in the battle with the western people. Others say that he was poisoned by the peoples of the south. It is hard to say which account is true. The place of his burial is not definitely known. The Winnebago wished to move him to their own cemeteries, but the exact place of his burial could not be determined. A monument was erected to him in Winnebago Cemetery, Winnebago, Nebraska. This stands southeast of Winnebago.

See, "Little Priest’s Game."


     That is the reason why the Winnebago held
the catching up dance, to get away from the sickness
which the Sioux had for 2 years after fighting
Little Priest. The Sioux didn't know how
to avoid this sickness, but the Winnebago do,
according to the dictates of the bundle spirits.
    Still today they have faith in war bundle
feasts. The faith endures.
    The same dances were repeated for 4 nights.
The Receiver had to stay put up a feast
for his war bundle which had been fed. It
was the Receiver's war bundle which was fed.
    Each day a repetition of 1st days program.
    The Receiver may pass the scalp on to
a 2nd Receiver, who then has to give a four
day ceremony like the above. The 2nd
man can pass it to a 3rd man, with like
result. The 3rd man can pass it to
4th man. That is all. Each must give
a four day feast like above.
Wãkʌnasúkgikili = passing the scalp to
another war bundle owner.
    After the fourth time, some one may have
a son die‸,any of family. In order to console this loss, the scalp
was offered to the bereaved father. He puts up
the same feast as described above. At morning of
fifth day he places scalp on pole above grave.
There it stays. This is called – wãkʌnasúk wa na ƙe
                                                 scalp                placing
                                            mi ke tca gi kĕlĭ


Song – made up by soldier in france.
  Tells of things there and what happened.
  Story: –                         (Record VII) a.
    dedjá’akedja wötcĕ́ƙi
     across ocean   hot time
  horákilela ø hit’e wálacicigʌla
  so it was said  those  of strange speech (Germans)
  wotcéƙi kineje     horákilela      ⤤
  hard to get at them  so it was said
  hotcʌ̃k hotcitcína   hidjá hi‿anaga
  young winnebagos  they went over there
  loƙá‿e gotc      ᴓ
  pursue and shoot (them).



  Starts with                                          øᴓ = refrain elements.
    hoya haioha     o heho  oi



o >
    1     o yo yo ha‿i e
    2     yo ha‿i e
    3     no yo he yo hoyo oi


Song – made up by soldiers in france.
  wiwácigala   nehániwiná   wakikete–
       flag           we own        we love
              and      German      them         hand
                            raise up  in air.
  starting refrain –                                  ø = refrain elements.
    hai e ya                  ho o ho hae                      oi
    at end of worded [verse ?].
      ie a hae a            oi
  Record. VII b.


No medicine bundle; but each hunter had
medicine. This medicine originally obtained
in dream.
hikikárlaƙjĭnk – not to be interpreted. Used
in war + hunting. Purchased from medicine
man. Goods presented to him and medicine
asked. High priced – presents must be given
four times. Kind of root (same name as medicine).
Use in both good + evil way. Could be used
against another good hunter so that he could
not kill game. This "poisoned man" might
have ankle or knee swollen. One way, make
tea of root + place trap or weapon right in
tea. Had to be careful in using it. Another
hunter would avoid such traps, as this would
render him unable to catch game. No
songs, no rituals, no taboos. Certain taboo-like observances,
however. Other medicine men sold "defense"
medicines. Medicine men fasted in order to
get medicines.
    wasĕ́ (‸red paint) — Originated from underground
in water spirit (wakᵋtcĕƙí). In early days
ancestors used to fast many days in order to
obtain these medicines for younger generation.
Certain men fasted a certain length of time in
winter, and spirits came and informed them
to fast again during spring and summer, when
ice is gone from the water. During the summer,


it is day for these spirits. The winter time
is their night. For instance, snakes go into
holes and sleep all winter and come out in
summer. All other ground spirits the same. So it
is with the spirit world. Their summer is spirits' day is
called – waƙopini hamp hotcabirela
             ƙopini spirits |   their days
spirits night = hãhĕ́
           waƙopini warátcide hãhĕ hotcápidida
                   spirits,  their   nights.

108b (reformatted and corrected text)

A man fasted four days and four nights at a lake before a spirit came. For four nights he heard the spirit beating the drum and singing. These were the songs that were to go with the medicine. So the spirit acquainted him with the songs to go with the medicine to be found in his body. All these songs the man learned. A Waterspirit appeared before the faster and appointed a day for a summer meeting. This spirit asked for some tobacco, white deer skin, a dog, and red feathers (eagle down) on that day of their second meeting. This kind of present they called ną́piroxac (sacrifice). That is the beginning of this medicine. The spirit then would give him this medicine. The spirit said to the man, "You should make a knife of red cedar. With this shall you slay the great Waterspirit. This is the only weapon with which you may kill him." The spirit appointed a certain lake or river as a meeting place. The day was to be nice and clear and still, and the Indian was to be there, with the sacrifice, awaiting the spirit. When that day came, the lake began to be disturbed, although there was no wind. This was from the power of the spirits. First came Waíxira spirits. They wait on the Waterspirit. Then a piece of flaming wood rose from the center.

See, "A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga."

109 (reformatted and corrected text)

Then all kinds of large snakes came up. These all went down again. Then the other spirits appeared. These came to see if there was a chance of a hunter (Thunderbird) being somewhere about. These two are enemies, the Waterspirits and the Thunderbirds. These [scouting] spirits are the Waíxki, Beaver Waterspirits (Rap Wágᵋcexi), Elk Waterspirits (Hųwą́gᵋcexi), and Deer Waterspirits (Ca Wágᵋcexi). These underground spirits looked above to see if there were any clouds (signs of Thunderbirds), then went below to inform the great Waterspriit that all was clear. They told him to come up. Then that spirit appeared to the man, and instructed him on how to kill him. He explained what part of his body to remove for the medicine. He explained how to take it out. If any mistake should be made, the body would change to stone and could not be cut. So great care must be taken to follow the instructions exactly.

See, "A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga."

110 (reformatted and corrected text)

He should take some bones, blood, heart and some of all parts of his body. He asked the spirit for what and how this medicine could be used. So they spoke, face to face. He took out the blood and when he placed it away, it became red paint to be used as medicine, according to the spirit's directions. So with the other parts of his body, as they were taken out and placed to one side (on a white deer skin), they took the form of the medicine promised. There were many kinds of medicines besides the red paint. All were taken from certain parts of the spirit's body. This kind of dream, as well as the man having the dream, is called wažą́ hacá. The man saw the spirit with his own eyes, and this made him healthy and gave him a long life in this world. This also gave him

See, "A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga."

111 (reformatted and corrected text)

wealth and worldly goods. He was given all these medicines with which to cure the sickness and disease of his generation. He derived his benefit from the vision of the spirit, and the medicines were for the use of his grandchildren. Even to this day, some of these medicines remain and are potent when properly used. No museum ever has obtained any of these medicines. No Winnebago would sell any of these medicines for any price. They are holy medicines. The man's name was Mąnį́xete’ų́ga. This is one of the men who had a dream like this. This was the last man to see this spirit. Many others before him had this dream. He was the man who obtained the help of the French when the Illinois and their allies were determined to wipe out the Winnebago. This man could change into an otter and swim under water because he had had the Waterspirit dream. Thus he swam to the French fort and warned them of the danger to the Winnebago. Waterspirit medicines were all beneficial. The medicine given by the other lesser spirits might be beneficial or evil medicines, either one. So it is explained what the different medicines should be used for. After he removed all

See, "A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga."

112 (reformatted and corrected text)

the medicine from the body as instructed, he was then ordered to return home. Then he was to put up a one night feast on behalf of the spirits and the medicines (Mąką́wohą). Then the medicines were divided up and placed in bags. When he arrived home, during his feast, he sang the songs which he dreamed and which he was to use with the medicines. Still today these songs are used. Some are even used by the Ojibway and Menomini. Those medicines originating from this spirit included the following one, Nąsuhimąháp. This was to defend against the following kind of magic. A woman might take a man's hair and place it in a certain evil medicine, and keep it there. He was then under her control. He then had had headaches. This was cured by placing some of the medicine named above in an open cut in his scalp. A certain set of songs went with this treatment. Nąsuhimąháp was obtained from the ground bones of the spirit. There is another of these medicines. When leaving a village to camp out while hunting, in case they have poor luck, they gave tobacco to the old man who had seen a Waterspirit and asked him to intercede. He placed tobacco in the fire and put up an overnight feast (Waną́cĕrehí). After that, they would meet with good success.

See, "A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga."


     Another: When Winnebago go to different
tribe of Indians, before arriving among the other
people, they would give tobacco to one of these
same ‸water spirit dreamers, and he would hold a
ceremony feast (same name) like the one described in preceding
paragraph, with the result they they would
receive good hospitality and many fine presents
from those to be visited. No medicine, just certain [...] rituals.
    When they get to other tribe of Indians, and
the water spirit dreamer can paint his face with
the red paint from water spirit and when they
come to meet other people, and dance a friendship
dance (herúska | wací). Then he will get
            friendships dance
Indian goods from other tribe due to this medicine.
This called lokíkĕrĕ. This was the established
    These medicines can be handed down from
ancestors, who got them in dream. From either
father or from maternal uncle. Original
dreamer would teach one under him to use
the medicine after he was gone. The new
medicine man so made was called (not known).
He would return use of medicines for presents,
like either shamans, shamans called

wasĕ́hani – medicine man who owns red paint
mãkáni – ordinary medicine lodge leader.
wãnk      other [...]ts.
      In those days, chief of Thunder clan and
the bear soldiers kept everything in order. When
hunting, visiting other tribes, and so on.


Suppose same were traveling, came to a
river, put tobacco in water, out of respect to
water spirit. He owned all the water. After
that they can drink all they want and
go across it, or swim. Then nothing
would happen to them. This was the
custom. This called tani | wókicu.
                          tobacco   placing on water
    In those days they had a faith of what
ancestors dreamed of.

(Insert where belongs:)

    In war bundle story ——
    When going to war, winning war, coming
home there from, they generally have those of
buffalo clan with them.
Maybe a man there
with dream of Buffalo spirit. If someone is
overcome by dead enemy's ghost, and couldn't
walk, like a fit faint, they had what
they called tcemʌ̃´kʌ̃ = buffalo medicine;
this is a weed. Some of this prepared for
fainting warrior. Buffalo tail taken and used
as whip on him while medicine is taken
internally. No other song or rituals. Receivers.
This medicine must belong to one who has
had buffalo dream. This fainting = kiƙĕ́wĕ.
    This same medicine is good for treating
wounds obtained in battle. Buffalo is good
for long run. That is why this medicine is good.
This same is used also for horses + other cases and buffalo hunters.


   núkilukʌ̃nʌ̃ = wooing women. Many
kinds of this love medicine. One of these (Nebraska)
was a plant called tcemanʌskĕ. One
in Wisconsin was may flower (don't know name).
Two kinds of mayflower - male, + female. First
used by man for woman, 2nd used by woman for
man. Told by way roots looked.
    nã́nikᵋtcʌ̃ke’ũ‘ = love dolls medicine

        nã = wood
        nã = sleep
More water spirit medicines: —
    After the dreamer coming
    The water spirit dreamer derives benefit from
the dream, a gift also imparted to his family, and
he receives goods when visiting others, and he
receives presents for his intercessions with waterspirit,
and he receives presents for medicine. Also he
is highly respected by his fellow men.
    Out of spirit's bones, a certain medicine. If
a man is sick, almost dead. They go to the
dreamer to get this medicine – walatckʌ̃´-
                                               to drink
hisketca. Taken internally as a drink.
it is permitted
When the man comes to the sick man, the
medicine is measured out with wooden spatula
(mãkʌ̃´hilohida). Puts water in small
  medicine stirrer
wooden bowl and sings proper song. After


Address of   A. A. White
    Route 3, Box 70
    Wis. Rapids.

Charlie Brown –
     about mounds 2 or 3 mls.
     S. of Wis. Rapids, E bank
     of river.


he explains to them, what the water spirit
promised thru this medicine, and how the man
is to be cured. Then he pours medicine in
water. If medicine circulates around in bowl,
the man will live; otherwise, he will die.
All this is explained. "The great water spirit
promised me that when I am ‸in need of anything
he will hear me, wherever he is. This I am
doing as the water spirit told me. This is
his way" (then he pours medicine in.) if it [turns ?]
around, he takes [measure ?] stick and stirs it.
Gives it to patient any how whether it [turns ?]
or not. The man referred to before never failed
to cure the sick. It always worked.

117b (reformatted and corrected text)

Something happened one time. That was why it is called "Holy Lake" (Te Wákącąk). Something happened between the Waterspirit and the Thunderbird. They are enemies. The Thunderbirds held a council amongst themselves. Here they decided to wipe out the Waterspirits entirely. This the Waterspirits knew. They were able to hear what was said. Then they were afraid. So the Waterspirits held a council to determine how they were to protect themselves. Holy Lake is a village of

See, "Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Version 5."

118 (reformatted and corrected text)

these Waterspirits. So say the old Winnebagoes. One of those spirits had a son. He used to travel from one Waterspirit village to another, along the rivers and lakes. Often when he returned to his home, he found that his father was away. Then he went out and came back again. Then he said to his mother, "Where is my father? When I go away and return, he is not here. Where does he go?" Then she would not tell her son where the father went. She knew that they were holding a council to protect themselves from the Thunderers. That is why they called the boy "Traveling Man" (Wąkiwárekega). One time, coming home, the boy accidentally discovered the council place where his father had gone. This fellow had no respect for anything. He saw some young men at the council whom he knew. "What do they talk about?" he asked them. "Go in and hear for yourself," they said. So he went in. He did stay long. "That is nothing," he said. "That which they try to do, anyone can do that," he said. This he said to the young men, his friends. They older spirits were discussing means of preventing the planned attack of the Thunderbirds. The other boys, hearing him when he went away, told those of the council

See, "Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Version 5."

119 (reformatted and corrected text)

what Traveling Man had said. They were all thankful to hear that anybody could do this. But his father felt sorry for him. He thought that Traveling Man was helpless to meet the situation. The others said, "He must know something because he is traveling all over the world. Surely he has a great knowledge and this has caused him to speak." Then the council dismissed, since the Traveling Man was willing to assume the burden of defense. When the father returned home, he found his son waiting there. he said to him, "My boy, how can you have the power to do this? You have never fasted in your life. All those men at the council were powerful men, spirit gifted. They were afraid to undertake this thing. How can you expect to succeed?" "I know that I can do it if I get some help from them," said the boy, "but all alone I cannot do it." So he went to the council to tell them that his son wanted help. Those others agreed to help as but they could. He told his father that he wanted to lie next to the surface of the ground. He wanted them to attach a chain to him so that if anything happened to him they could pull him down out of danger. At that mound at the south end of the lake, that is where he lay. There he fasted. At a spring near the north end of the lake,

See, "Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Version 5."

120 (reformatted and corrected text)

there the Winnebago had a village at that time. A man of the Thunder Clan went to fast. He set up his lodge right at the mound over the Waterspirit. This man used to stay on the mound and came home in the evening, when he made himself humble before the spirits (cried). Finally, he felt as though he had been blessed. Finally, he told him that he blessed him. "I'll see you," said the Waterspirit, "during summer." He promised him what he begged for, and it was arranged to meet during the summer. Then the Waterspirit said, "You should give me a sacrifice of tobacco, white dear skin, and red feathers. Have them ready on the appointed day." On the appointed day, a fine still day, the man was waiting at the appointed place with his sacrifice. Then he came up by himself, all alone. He appeared above the water, a great long body with a long tail and crossed horns on his head. The day was clear and there was not a breath of wind. On the north shore were nothing but sand bars. The man saw a small cloud flying west towards the lake. They had not as yet talked to each other. When the cloud got just above, it dove and fell upon the place where the Waterspirit was. He lifted the Waterspirit out of the water, then he came down

See, "Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Version 5."

121 (reformatted and corrected text)

again. He wrapped his tail about the Thunderbird and dragged him down towards the water. For a long time they struggled. Sometimes one and sometimes the other prevailed. The man had an arrow and stood there watching them. The Thunderbird said, "Brother, help me out. Shoot the Waterspirit. I am getting tired. The great spirit above gave you the bow and arrow. Be sure and kill this spirit." He blessed the Winnebago man and promised him great power. The man belonged to the Thunder Clan. That's why he called him "brother." The Waterspirit said, "Don't do this. As long as he blessed you, that is all right. This he gave you, but do not do as he asks, for I blessed you before he did. If you do this for him, don't ever again come hear any water on earth." The Thunderbird said, "Do not hear him. he is not the only one who has water. We above also have water. Brother, shoot him for me." The Waterspirit said, "My grandson, don't believe in him. I blessed you before he did. Shoot him for me." So the man shot the Thunderbird. They took him under the water. So he was vanquished.

See, "Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Version 5."

122 (reformatted and corrected text)

He took the Thunderbird to the chief of the Waterspirits. There they placed the Thunderbird in chains. Then they talked of what thing should be done with him. Then they came to an agreement. If the Thunderer would marry the daughter of the chief of the Waterspirits, then they would not kill him. He agreed to do this, but he told them that he wanted to show himself to his own people, just show himself above the water from the waist up. So he told his people that he was saved and married to the chief's daughter, and not to worry about him. Then a council was held to offer some Waterspirits to the Thunderbirds (who ate Waterspirits). This offering is called hinŭ́kwagu. This the Waterspirits offered to the Thunderbirds. That is the reason every time a storm comes, the lightning strikes the banks of the lake on the east and west side. That is why rocks are all broken up. After that, they used to see certain kinds of fish in that lake, the body is like a fish and the head and arms are human. That is how it is. That is the offspring of the Thunderbird and his Waterspirit wife. That is why it is called "Holy Lake."

See, "Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Version 5."


Tribes who branched out from Winnebago in early days:
        1. nṹtchʌtci = watersnake
                one woman among Oklahoma Inds. about 10 years ago.
        2. hit’enúke = Those not wishing to talk.
                talking | not desiring – (don't like to talk.)

             A Win. medicine called – hit’enúke wasé
                  one of water spirit medicines.
             This tribe spoken of in medicine feast.

        Oto = Watcokᵋtcátca =    ?
        Iowa = Waƙótc = gray people.
             Used to live by gray creek, children good swimmers, gray due to
                  mud in water.


Warbundle dance:—

In the beginning, war bundle owner always
had a waiter, a nephew. He told him to invite
any warbundle owner, or young hunter, or warrior to
his place for on certain day. In the evening, starts prepared
for night feast (hãhĕ́‘wohʌ̃). Stones A small
             night‸spirits  | boil
lodge was erected by waiters and rocks were placed
there. Tobacco was placed in fire when stones were
heating, also on stone, and prayer made asking for life
and health. Wonáƙile = war-luck also asked for.
inókereiṹ‘iní = stones. They pray that they
sweat bath | stone |
intend to go out and hunt game for feast for war
bundle. This done when stones placed in fire. Pot
placed on [...]t another adjacent fire, till water boils.
wazṹtca (one who saw‸water spirit face to face at one time) may
have a child; he, too, would be invited. He has
a great medicine and they depended on him. The
small sweat lodge called = iní‿hokerehotci.
Prepare canvas or blankets to place over sweat lodge.
All should now enter. A small pot of hot water was
at hand. A bunch of hay placed in water. This
used to sprinkle water on hot stones. This sprinkle Pot of water will hang
called ini‘hi laíhakᵋ. When all are seated
within, Helper then hands pot of water with tray to feast leader.
Tobacco also given to him. He then prays to stones.
"I call you grandfather. I pray to the nightspirits
(hãhĕ́‘) for long life and happiness. I am putting up
feast for my war bundle. Help me to kill deer


and bear for this feast." When thru praying.
"Now I am going to sing a night spirit song.
(hãhĕ́‘ nãwã). First four slow songs, then
night spirit | song |
four faster songs for dancing. Usually 12 or 13 songs.
After singing + dancing (outside). Women often
danced for them outside. All invited to dance ceremony,
and these going to hunt for feast were in lodg[e].
hidjá‘kikere = passing pot to next man — some
other war bundle owner. Or perhaps he is one of
wasĕ́’hani or warʌ̃´tca (owners of water spirit medicine).
Each also sings four slow songs and 12 to 13 dance songs.
Speech between slow + fast songs — tells of going
to sing dance songs (hewacinã́wã). When
each man starts singing he sprinkles water
on stones to make steam. Pot passed four times.
It's very hot in there. That is to make them

     Blankets placed over the frame before stones
are placed in.

Small place left open in which
to placeinsert a stones. Every one has to enter this same
way, then opening closed. Stones in center. Stones
within slight depression.

  Then they all came out of sweat lodge and
canvas taken off and poles taken down, and
placed all cleaned up. Stones thrown outside.
Now ready to go hunting. All who sweated
participate in hunt. If its winter time, they
walk outside of sweat lodge and wash selves with


snow to get cooled off. In summer time they
take swim in river. Or helper will have water
ready to throw on sweaters. Then they dress
up. Dishes then prepared for feast (wakigó).
                                                                       the host.
kigo = those invited. Waiter = warutcʌ̃´. Then
food pot placed by the fire. So that it will be
ready. The leader says: He prays same as before.
Prays to fire. Feet, breast + head and
separated in different dishes. Bread with heart. He
gives bread to one who offered him scalp in
former scalp dance. (All meat in pot called wapá-
haratc.) That is the food he formerly asked for.
Maybe one of sons of or brothers or males in family
take the place of this man, if he is absent. The
leader tells him to eat, so all can start eating.
All start eating together. Helper has dish of
his own. Leader does not eat. After get them
eating. Helpers gather all bones left over and
he who had head gives thanks. "I wish that
everything that you asked for will come true."
When he finishes, leader talks back. "Thanks him
for what he said, that everything coming true,
getting animals for feast. Thanks for coming
to help pray. All who are to hunt will be
ready in morning to go."
    In morning start out to place where good hunting
is expected. Waiters go too. Waiters are like
slaves to uncles, due to close relationship. They
do all work, putting up house, taking it down,
cooking and so forth.


When they arrive at hunting place, they all
wore new buckskin moccasins. These lined with
black oak leaves, dry, to keep feet warm. These
called laƙĕ́wekĕ |na|’ap.        Ap = leaves.
                                  | now
                                  | omitted

silóƙiwi – name of leaves when used as stockings.
Moccasins get worked thus, but feet remain
warm on account of leaves. Before they started
out ‸from hunting camp they face east, and leader holds tobacco in
hand and prays. Tobac Tobacco contributed also held by
all hunters. Leader says: "These night spirits,
when they come at evening, they see everything.
They see thru the ground as far as the roots go.
They have wonderful sight. This sight, give
us that we may see the game which we go
to hunt. Nightspirits never miss. Therefore you
will all be the same way, and not miss the
quarry. When you aim at any animal,
don't hesitate. Shoot, and you will hit it."
Tobacco poured by leader + hunters on ground.
Then go E ways and then turn to right.
When they come back, will have circled the
camp and come in from W. Hunt four
days. No less. If get plenty of game first day,
must continue hunting. Bring in all game
shot. Come back every night ‸to hunting camp and start out
next morning, four times. Only deer + large
animals hunted. Ducks + mud hens + raccoon
also good for feasts. Sturgeon for special feast.


At end of four days hunt, return to village.
If leader was to[o] "slow" for hunt, his son took
his place. Wanʌkísĕ = name of this hunt. Start
for home. On arrival, another war bundle man goes out
(Sákĕrĕ = a man who owns war bundle.)
hunting and hunts for four days. They hunt separately All go together each
not together. time, but always led by a new leader
bundle owner, or his representative. If bundle owner's
can not go to another's hunt, he sends his helpers.
After supply is ready, have to wait until Rest served
days between each 4 days of hunting.
   Returned from hunting, half have all supplies
needed, time to put up dance lodge. Helpers ask
younger men to help them. Winter feast Which deer skin sacrifice called
nã́plohʌ̃tc (sacrifice). These obtained from animals
in hunt. This only done in winter. Helpers go and
get poles for house. Some have to get dry firewood.
Feast to last all night ‘til morning. Several days
required to get materials ready. Cattail mats
(witcí) gathered to cover house. No birch bark.
Saha = matting for floor. Straw placed under
matting. nãkikárasi = pole placed between
straw and dance floor. When ready, fetch in the
war bundle; leader does that. It has been kept
hanging in house. Mound of sand or dirt (clean)
where bundle is to be placed (                       )
War bundle hung up on wall behind leader.
Fire drill placed on top of bundle where it will
be available. Fire drill = nãpetci’ṹna


By tomorrow night will have feast.
Now ready to build fire. This done whenever
house is finished. tcokᵋdjĭ̃ | ná petci’ũ =
                                   bow drill.
how d making fire with bow drill. This only
used by Winnebago when women prepare for
menstrual seclusion. Does not use hand drill.
He builds fire with drill. Then tobacco presented
to fire. All present given tobacco by leader and
place it in fire after prayer. Prayer = "Thank
great spirit who taught how to make fire; fire will
live with them forever and watch over them.
Satisfied that it has been started burning
in that village now, so that every one there
would have good life. Fire to act as
interpreter to spirits as long as they live. Take
this tobacco I offer you, and do what I ask
of you, so rest of all that all of us, with women and children in
village, shall have good life." Then tobacco
placed in the fire. (Insert in prayer: "Others too
will give tobacco" — he gives it to others an and they
too put it in fire.) If at any time, others come
in, leader gives them tobacco and they place it
in fire. He has already prayed for them.
Those who put up tent, and work, have certain
place to eat while they put up tent, gather
fire wood, and so on. Leader eats with them.
Soon as returned from hunting, separate
feast meat from helpers' meat and other
common meat. Towards evening, sunset,


helpers prepare for another sweat bath.
This for purification, so holy to handle and
be with war bundle. Going to build a larger
sweat house, so as to invite other war bundle
owners to join them — take care of new arrivals.
At the same time stones are placed in fire, some meat
cooked in a pot. The sweat house bath, in all
all particulars, prayers and all, like that preceding.
Meat for feast after sweating. Hot water passing,
songs + dances, and feast, same as before. When
they finish, bones picked up same as before. Men
who eat head, given thanks as before. Leader
talks — to sleep all night in dance house, to
keep fire going. Leaders brother and their children
should sleep then too. After all others went
home, there in long house listen to leader tell
story of war bundle, how originated, from what
spirits, etc. So that they should all know
the message of the spirit of the warbundle, so that
the feast may be kept going, understand what to
do after leader dies. That is why he tells them,
so they will know what it is all about.
    Fire places distributed along middle of
house. Nã́p’rohatc - feast of winter festival.
     Deer hide tanning. After tent is put up,
before feast, after inókewe, last sweat bath, at


same evening preparing for big feast, women
tanning deer hides. Women appointed by leader
to do this. Must be past change of life. Helper
directs and helps in this – especially in straightening
hides. Same time, while tanning deer hides, begin
to cut up meats. Ask leader how to cut them
and apportion them. Waiters separate heads,
breasts and hearts. Heads These go to one different pots in
pots separate from other meat.
    While butchering meats, head waiter (older man)
= warutcʌ̃´hogora, keeps track of all wokĕ́‘
(pieces of meat). Old head waiter must know
number of these pieces. Going to make nanók,
sticks, one for each chunk of meat. Four persons
to eat one head, breast + heart. Head waiter also
makes dry pine sticks about 1´ to 2´ long with
which to light pipes (taníhu hita’ĕ́hi). Placed
                                             pipe    | lighters
on each side of each fire.
    At evening, all come. Before that ‸one waiter has
invited all of them. He takes sticks, in bundles of
four, and gives one bundle to each war bundle
owner. When these sticks are returned to leader, they
are accompanied by tobacco and sometimes meat.
This meat is for leader to eat after the feast is
over, in which he can not participate.
    One of the helpers shows the invited bundle
owners where to sit. Place them ‸each by one of the


     Still tanning hides at womens end of house.
Hides ‸all tanned in house. When this job is finished
one of waiters takes hides to leader. He incenses
hides with cedar leaves and trims them.
cedar leaves = waziparaskĕí (white cedar).
He also marks the skins. White deer skins
are called tca|háts|ska nãmphíruhatc.
                 deer  | skin | white|  offering
No ritual while marking. After they are all
marked, one for night spirits, one for great spirit,
and two other spirits; one = thunder bird and
sun (wira). (hañpwira)    great spirit = ma’ṹla
night spirits = hãhĕ́la thunder = wakãtcála
hoceleṹwahila = disease giver.
wilákũckĕkĕtéla = morning star.
    Head waiter is told to put the pots at
separate fires, according to from "spirits"

  1st fire = { great spirit. —  E end
  night spirits.
      other  ?  


Skins suspended from roof by war bundle.
Pots also suspended from wooden hooks.

     Head waiter supposed to keep track of pots, as to
what spirit it is for. When they cook, when each
pot is placed on fire, ‸leader give a song‸and prayer (hogá) with
offerings of tobacco to respective fires 1st fire. Songs
are to war bundle. No names for songs. Leader
loads pipe and places it and puts tobacco in
an open dish, also tobacco mixed with ‸kinikinik (luƙicutskĕ́
hikíhupʌna = mixed tobacco). When the pipe is
loaded, it is placed facing E. end — offering to
night spirits.
    Then buckskins hung to ceiling.
    Waiters (before this) begin to count pieces of meat
in each pot, according to no. of sticks issued, beginning
at pot at east end.
    Common people do not get stick invitations, but
there are sticks for them. Telling head waiter how much


meat to cook. The four sticks given as invitations
to warbundle leaders, are returned, on this arrival, to
the dance leader, into and then turned over to the
head waiter, for use in determining amount of
meat to cook.
    Speech by leader = first event: He is going
to give a feast in honor of great spirit, all the spirits of
the above-world, all the spirits of the below world, and
the spirits that had appeared to any of those present
in dreams. In this way they should insure to
themselves long life, happiness, health and success
in warfare. He calls upon other warbundle owners
and their helpers to assist in the singing, dancing,
and so on. (No welcoming here). He cites
the giving of tobacco to various spirits, the preparation
of buckskins to various spirits, the dedication of
meat to various spirits, and so on. This is the
hogá‘ speech.
    Drum = wakigó lĕƙ ha(lr)upólok̇ (k̇ = glottal)
                         feast    | drum |
Waiters or leader's sons put water in drum and
fix the head on tight. Drum stick = lĕƙharupó-
lok̇ hilotcĩ. Then take vessel with hot coals
and cedar leaves and "smoke" drum and drum stick
over it. These turned over + over in smoke.
(Leader often clothed only in breech cloth + moccasins,
no matter how cold the weather). Drum then


given to leader.
    Songs in definite order, one song following a certain
one and preceding another. Songs remembered by
associated story or myth. No mnemonic reminders.
Certain songs are crying songs. Crying to be done
only during these songs.
    Procedure of songs.
         4 slow songs — speech — dance songs.
(Women only dance at W. end.)
Men folks dancing only by war bundle, each
taking some article out of war bundle, club,
flute, etc., pacing back in bundle when finished.
    War bundle  —   waluƙáp.   
    men dancing around bundle — "        horaciĕ́tca
    woman's dancing —     ?       no name.
Place of woman's dancing  
Women wear finest garments they have. This
is true of all other dancers. Give war cry when
dance; give it at very end of each dance.
war whoop = ilókaratcĩtci.
    Head waiter then lights pipe and passes it
round. After that, waiters assist every one to
fill their pipes from the bowl of tobacco at the
bundle. Dance leader and his helpers do not
smoke ceremonial pipe. Do not smoke the tobacco
for guests; smoke own tobacco. Leader does not
smoke at all. This is custom, don't know why


water is placed in bowls at disposal of other guests,
but those giving feast, leader, helpers + visitors, don't
drink this either; have special bowls set aside for
them. Leader's sons, brothers etc. act as drummers,
rattlers + singers. Rattle = pĕƙsósoƙ.
                                                 bottle  | rattle |
(Medicine rattle different – has blue paint on it.
Small Rattles in the bundle, to
use when bundle is taken on war path, are quite
    Procedures of singing – dancing – smoking =
done four times. Pipe back to same place each
time. The special waiter, appointed by head
waiter, who lights pipe and passes it around,
also cleans it and fills it again for next time.
    When four songs all over, drum placed with
war bundle (see map). This done by waiter.
    Then one of leader's men wraps up war bundle,
brings it back of leader. This is because women
are going to dance in night spirit singing.
    Leader talks again about good living, health,
success in warfare, etc. This done by leader.
This talk called hogá, too. Every time
hogá is finished, all other bundle owners say
o ———— ó. Sign of agreement.
    Leader then puts tobacco on fire for night-
spirits. This called (in any case) táni wokicu
= filling spirit pipe.


     Say then that they are going have night spirit
dancing. Waiters sweep up the dancing course
on each side of fires. Clear the way. No name.
The bundle owner then appoints someone to lead the
dancing. wacitconĭ́́ = dance leader (general term).
He has flute which he blows before each dance song
is given. War bundle leader often wears a
bead band covered with ‸small fine eagle feathers.
Others of leader's people place a few fine eagle down
feathers on top of head. These called
macŭ́ska hozuzu‘.
    Waiter takes coals + incense. Another waiter
carries eagle down feather. These proceed leader in
dance. Dance clock wise. Dance organized on
North side of fire facing E. First leader, then
men, then women. Just before starting, the leader
blows his flute, then song starts and dancers
start around lodge. Leader blows flute every
time he starts new circle of lodge. Man with
feather goes first, sprinkling them on ground
of dance course. Followed by incense burner
who "smokes" dance route. Then leader +
others. Dance lasts as long as the song.
As soon as each song is done, continue around
course until they come to their places. Leader
returns flute to leader. All sit there and


rest and talk. Leader then says, "This is
the way we do, in order to worship the spirits of
our father. Please help us in this singing and
dancing. So that we shall enjoy long life –" etc.
The drum passed, clock wise around lodge, to war bundle
leader on south side near door. Tobacco also passed
to him. He leads new set of songs, like first,
and places tobacco on fire.
    Only are some companies use white feathers, only those
belonging to thunderbird or eagle bands.
    Each new bundle leader gives a similar
hogá speech. When he finishes, the first war
bundle leader, blows the flute before the
song begins. Four slow songs, this time. Then
stop. Then notify people of dance song. Then
sing dance songs. Each leader has four
helpers for singing. Each time, before singing
begins, original war bundle leader blows
flute. Then dance leader takes flute
again, and so on.
    The drum is passed to every war bundle
owner, in exactly this manner. Tobacco
placed on fire before start to sing. Each
leader gives his own songs. Tobacco for
those particular spirits which appeared in
these various dreams.


     Only bundle leader that tells of his dream
is the feast giver. He tells of promises received
from dream (see former speech).
    Then time for feast. As soon as last
man is there, drum placed back at place of
shrine, with rattle, flute, etc..
    Feast giver then talks: He wish to give
this feast for, etc., like others. Also says,
certain spirits honored by each pot of meat,
gives this in detail. (Chief waiter has to listen
to this to get his directions).

Insert before warbundle put away:
      Bird people + animal people each appoint
a man to participate in race-feast. Just
before war bundle is put away. This race
is called { warlutch sak’ũ = fast eater eating
  waluhap’tcowétca = ‸eating before the warbundle
No arranged winner. Best man wins. The
side winning will have good luck when they
next go to war. Meat comes out of thunder-bird
pot. That is the custom. Probably because
war bundles come are supported by thunder birds.

1st pot (great spirit) to 1st man on S. side
of fire (probably a "scalp man". Then common
meat to his female relatives. Next pot to
next in line, clockwise, etc.


     Head etc. to each 4-stick man, and
meat to their female relatives. Body meat then
passed to common people. Each man person brought
his own bowl + spoon.
    When all were served, leader notifies them to
go ahead + eat. He then sings slow songs
without drum. No name. His war bundle songs.
Then waiters pass bunches of dog wood shavings (green)
to waiter war bundle leaders with which to wipe
hands. These bundles called nakís’o.
Waiters then pick up all bones and place in one
pail. Stick-fork = in each pole pot (woké’ʌ̃tcu).
These of hard wood, usually red or white oak.
These placed with bones and also shavings
used to wipe hands. These kept separate for
each pot. When all thru, then leaders,
each in turn who received pot of meat, thanks
feast giver for food he received. Each one thanks
in same way.
    Feast giver, apologizes for poor service,
thanks all for coming, participating, and
helping with singing and dancing.
Such thanks-talks = wa’inʌ́p.
    Feast giver people, when all others are thru,
eat one meal, not of food prepared for feast; own
    Then anyone can go out and rest awhile:


No name for rest times. "Free for the people".
    Then all waiters dispose of bones, wash boiler
and carry water for next feast. They got no
rest. They work enough to supply known number
of guests. Next feast also of meat. This
feast before daylight, usually in early morning.
First feast would be in middle of night. Bundle-
feasts usually start in evening, but occasionally
in day time, when they start about noon.
    Feast given, mentions certain spirits again for
each pot of meat, probably same ones as before,
but may be different. Tobacco again placed on
fire, with prayer like former. Some times Some
of war leader did not get to sing until the
second part of ceremony.
    Meat placed to cook by waiters.
    Some leader leads dance. Nothing but
night singing. Start with bundle leader
who didn't get to sing. Continues until before
until all leaders have sung. Do not need
to fumigate the dance path again, or distribute
feathers. These only done once around path.
(Flute = hiSuSúk‘).
    Towards morning, the drum tender notifies
the singer that he must sing fast. Then they
rush things in preparation for white deer skin


     Finally, the last war bundle leader is to
sing. He may only sing one or two slow songs,
usually 2. When done, feast giver band rise
with tobacco in hand, and this they throw in
tobacco fire place. They then take down buckskins.
As many of young people as wanted to, men + women,
joined in the dancing. Old people dance where
they stand. Singers stay seated and sing +
drum. After four fast dancing songs are
sung, then each faster than others, the skins,
finally came to dance leader's place, and
the skins are thrown up thru the smoke hole
rite roof, at east end. Skins wrapped up
about "stretching stick" and thrown out. No
name for this, tca ha‸|ska lu cĭp = put out thru hole.
    Then came the feast. Proceedings same
done as in former feast. Leader don't sing
slow while eating this time. Thanks again
from all 4-stick men. Feast giver returns


     The drum ‸etc. are placed by at altar spot before
they eat.
    Then everybody gives some of own tobacco as
offering beside feast givers fire place. If haven't
own tobacco, give some of feast giver's tobacco. Men
women + children do this. This sacrifice is
to disease maker.
    Bones have all been gathered and saved in
wooden bowl. After tobacco sacrifice, red
feathers placed with these bones and given to
disease maker. One of feast giver party has to
place these bones where there are no people and
where dogs won't bother it. Tobacco also
placed in this vessel of bones by each of
feast giver's party.
    Some of young men of feast giver's party
hang buckskins up in a tree, where they
are left four nights. Then someone hides
the buckskins some where where no one will
bother them.
    Then house is cleaned out, and mound
of new dirt placed in altar place, and
four red feathers, indicating the cardinal
directions, placed about mound. Then
buffalo heads, tails, or other fetishes placed
on mound. This done early in morning


Then waiters have to boil corn, rice, and
dry squashes, and ‸dried water roots (tce lʌ́p). Look
like bananas. Cooked all at once, if all are

  Feast giver again gives speech { tcé wohʌ̃ buf. feast
    tcé waci – buf. dance
He says: Whoever made this idol for dream he
had, dreamed of buffalo spirit. Tells of
all things promised by this spirit.
    The leaders daughters + sisters sometimes
cook vegetal foods for this feast.
    Waiter then gives feast giver drum and
rattles and flute. Then start slow singing.
Sing an indefinite no. of these songs. Songs
in definite order. Just before slow songs
or fast songs, the flute is blown. This tells
spirits of what is happening.
    While talking, before dancing begins,
some one appointed dance leader. Someone outside
of feast-givers party. tcewacitcóni = dance leader.
He gets flute at start of each dance, and gives it
back to feast giver at end of dance. No
war whoop at buffalo dance. Men folks
occasionally give a whining cry hŭ̃-ŭ̃ hŭ̃-ŭ̃,
in high whining voice. This done by men
once in a while. This done by dancers. This
done towards the close of songs.


     Leader wears buffalo headdress, another
takes a buffalo tail, so each one takes something
from the "bundle" to dance with, until relic
are all gone. These returned to altar after each
dance. Women also join dance.
    Waiter places maple syrup in bowl and
places it on ground W. of altar. Sometimes two
bowls, one for women and one for men. Have
to drink all of syrup. Waiter may hold
bowl up to help people drink. If any syrup
left after dancers finish, passed around to old
    After songs + dances finished, other clan
buffalo leaders in the company asked to help.
The drum with tobacco passed to the next
one. This tobacco thrown on mound of earth
rather than in fire. Each has to use 4 slow
songs and then a number of dance songs.
Sweet corn and maple sugar, mixed + pounded,
sometimes served in this feast (waṫútc) or
waluskú waṫútc.
sweet corn |

Insert where belongs – at end of war bundle feast.
When drum returned to war bundle leader:
Some one appointed to shout — long call
(wakᵋtcéwã) – this is scalp cry. This is


last thing before dismissal of war bundle
ceremony, after war bundle is put away,
[t]he caller also is given a flute to blow. After
this done at end of four part dance song.
Each time, the scalp call is followed by
war cry on part of all dancers. After this the
leader announces that a buffalo dance will
be held.

    One dish of food placed on top of buffalo
altar. This for dance leader. He invites some
to eat with him. This dish is usually
pounded sweet corn or wild rice. After he
has finished eating this, he turns it over
with his head. No name. Sometimes it
is the syrup dish which is turned over.
    When the feast is over‸,thank-you speeches and then the drum is returned
to the feast giver. Then he sings a dance
song, unpreceded by slow songs. Then all
dance in a row and go out of the lodge. That
is the end.

Insert above.
    At end of war bundle feast, leader notifies
all who want new fire in place of the old fire to
help themselves from the fire places. This is
after the finish of the night spirit dance, last
thing. This must be taken from first fire place.
    At the leaders home, clean out old fire
place, put in new dirt, then get new fire


from ceremonial fire place. No name for this.
This is why large pieces of slippery elm are used
in ceremonial fire, so that it will stay burning
and will not go out easily.
    War bundle taken back to home and
suspended in house of owner.
    Buffalo "bundle" (      ?         )
also taken home by owner and put away, on
ground or any where else.
    In buffalo dance, any one might wear
buffalo headdress. He would bring his own
for that purpose. Anyone whose forefathers had
had buffalo dream could wear it. No connection
with buffalo band.
    No name for touching white deer skins.
    Buffalo dance leader had visions of buffalo,
promising long life, health, success in war, etc.
FetishesBuffalo medicine used often as medicines for –
    1. long distance runners.
    2. war, to give endurance.
    3. for houses used in buffalo hunting.
    Medicine chewed and spit on body of man
or animal, or spit on hand and rubbed on
animal or person treated. Medicine called
tcémʌ́ka = certain kind of weed. Blossoms,
pink, resemble buffalo tails.


ilowalukílĭs = mud placing mud on
palm of hand, making it circular with ends of
fingers, and placing it on face, legs or arms of
man or animal treated. This done in addition
to application of plant medicine. The root
of the weed is used. Reason for weed medicine
not known by informant. Reason secret
with doctors.
    In Buffalo dance, no certain man
honored with special food. All served
alike. Only, those who sang get special first service.
    In all feasts, when food is to be distributed,
the feast giver says in his speech, where food came
from at to what spirit it has been consecrated.


150 (reformatted and corrected text)

The Winnebago Warleader went to the Missouri River district and asked the Sauks to join his warparty. There was a young man with the Warleader named Mijistéga who had a fawn skin tobacco bag. The Sauks gave a Bear Dance after four days' preparation. There were two Sauk men, leaders of the dance, who were friends. They performed miracles. They took wild turnips and cérap from the ground, and made bear claws disappear in their hands. The bear claw was shot into the head of the Warleader. He did not know this, but Mijistéga knew it. The Warleader began to sweat, so Mijistéga spoke to him about it. The Sauk Indians, by request, sang for him. They placed mud on his head and so removed the bear claw. He was ashamed. So he [Mijistéga] said that he would give the claw back to him. He was going to do it pretty strong. The man fell over like he was dead when he hit him with the bear claw. Then blood began to drool from his mouth. His friends tried to cure him, but couldn't. The Sauk then brought presents of goods and gave them to the Winnebago Warleader. "This is that you [Mijistéga] may cure him [the Sauk]," they said. Then he laughed, "But that's his own medicine!" he said. "We danced like this at home. I never joined with them. Everything was too green." Then he got blankets, ponies and other goods that were given him. This they gave him, for they saw that he knew more than they did. He said, "It's easy to take that out. That's your own shot, but you don't know how to use it." So he made the man sit up, took hold of him, and

See, "Mijistega and the Sauks."

151 (reformatted and corrected text)

made him do it. Then, when he did that, he hit him on the back with the flat of his hand. The claw then shot out of his mouth. Then he recovered. So he cured him. Then they took all of the goods and took them to the Warleader. Then they said, "Let us use you to do other things." He asked his leader and gained consent. "Do it if you want to." He was willing. They said they would sing for him. Then the Bear Dance was started. Then he took the spotted form of tobacco bag. Miracles he did. Then he imitated the bear. "Ą-ha’ ha’ ha’ ha’," he said four times. Then he picked up his tobacco bag and threw it in front of him right on the ground. Then it began to come to life. It proceeded him around the lodge. Then he picked it up, and it was just like it was before. Again he "laughed," and picked wild turnips out of the ground, also ceráp. Then he took a dry plum branch. This they told him to place upright in the altar mound. Then he danced towards the mound. Then again he "laughed." Then he caught a stick in his hand and shook it. Then it became green, the ripe plums fell from its branches. Then he finished circling the lodge and came to his own place. Then he asked for two pans of

See, "Mijistega and the Sauks."

152 (reformatted and corrected text)

flour. Then he said, "Put these on the Bear Mound." This they did. "Cover it with black cloth." This they did. "These," he said, "are going to be turned, one to maple sugar and one to red paint." Then they started singing. So they watched him. he danced towards the mound. When he got there, he "laughed" again. Four times he shook each of the covered bowls. "This," he said, "will be sugar, and this paint. So whoever gives me a present, divide it amongst yourselves. When you use this paint for medicine and take also a little of this sugar, it will cure your sickness." Then he sat down. Then a waiter came, and he instructed him to remove the covers. Everyone watched and many gave presents to the young man. The Sauk had never before seen this thing that was done. An old Sauk Indian then rose and made a speech of thanks. So he told them that there were two Sauks who did this dance, but they had never given anything to help the others. He, however, coming from another tribe, "has helped us a great deal. Our children, women, and old people shall be glad to have the medicine. What we gave you as a present is nothing, but what you gave us is a great help. For this

See, "Mijistega and the Sauks."

153a (reformatted and corrected text)

we are glad (thankful)." Then the young man said to the leader, "Leader, don't be ashamed because of what has been done here. These goods I give to you, so that you shall not be ashamed, and because you are the leader here." The leader then said, "That is so, what you said, and these things which you give to me, we shall divide amongst us equally." After stopping four days, they went towards the war, Winnebago and Sauk together.

See, "Mijistega and the Sauks."

153b (reformatted and corrected text)

A party of Winnebago went to war with prairie Indians (Móskaci). When they killed somebody, then they ran back, but one of them got lost. They went different ways in order to hide their tracks, and one got lost from the others. Then he kept on going, eating nothing. Then he suffered, and he had stomach trouble. Then he passed blood. He thought sure that he would die. This was on the prairie. He got so weak that he could go no farther and lay down. Then he heard someone talking to him. "Try to get up and look at me," it said. He rose to a sitting position. It was a weed talking. It said, "You eat me, just as I am, now. I will cure you and give you new strength." This he did. After eating it

See, "A Weed's Blessing."

154a (reformatted and corrected text)

his sickness was all gone. Then the weed said, "When you get home, tell your people to use this weed like myself for medicine, and when they are sick this way, I will cure them. But they must give me tobacco when they use me." So that is the best medicine for stomach trouble.

See, "A Weed's Blessing."

154b (reformatted and corrected text)

These events took place when the Winnebago were in Minnesota. Then they had smallpox among them. Everyone was dying. The people decided to move away from the old village site. Then Bow (Mącgúga) got smallpox. He had a very bad case of it. At the time when everyone was getting ready to move, he became worse. His mother built a small teepee and gathered wood inside the tent for the fire, and put in two big logs to keep the fire burning. Then they cleaned out around the fire so that nothing would take fire from it. Food was left with him. It was winter time when this happened. Later on, it was night. The fire kept burning. He had a stick with which to poke the fire. Sometime in the night he heard foot falls, and heard the snow crunching underfoot. It came into the tent. It sat down opposite Bow on the other side of the fire. He was dressed in a buckskin suit. A sash was across his breast with many buckskin bags hanging from it. Bow looked at him, and did not

See, "Bow Meets Disease Giver."

155 (reformatted and corrected text)

know him. He was a total stranger. This man said to him, "Grandson, I came down to see you, because you have been left here alone by your people. I am going to show you what I am doing." Then he took off one of the buckskin bags and opened it by the fire. He then scraped some red hot cols from the edge of the fire. Then he took medicine from a bundle. "Listen," he said, throwing the medicine in the fire. The medicine made a popping noise, ta-ta-ta-ta-ta-ta. That is the way it went, and at the same time he heard sick people moaning. "That's what I did," he said to Bow. "Grandson, I am going down to see a man and his wife of your people. I must go now. I will be back again after awhile." Then he went out. He went to the man and his wife. Bow looked at the bundle where it still rested by the fire. With the fire stick he drew it to him. Then he drew some coals to the edge of the fire. Then he threw the bundle on the coals. When it was burning he heard someone coming. The same man came in again. "Where is that bundle I had here?" he said. "M-m-m, that beats me. You have beaten me, and so I am going to give you some medicine. What medicine I have is not all bad. Some of it is good medicine. I am now going

See, "Bow Meets Disease Giver."

156a (reformatted and corrected text)

to give you some of the good medicine. It is good for any kind of sickness, also good for gambling, race running, war, and love medicine. It is very good for disease too, for those diseases that I give. When anytime one has this disease that you have, if you put a little bit of this medicine on the coals and smoke the tent that way, your family will not have this disease. That is what it is good for. This I do because you put one over on me. So you will get well." This man was Disease Giver (Hošĕtĕ’ų́wahi). This medicine is still in the informant's family in a medicine bundle. [It is] with his grandchildren in Oklahoma. This happened 70-80 years ago, before the informant was born.

See, "Bow Meets Disease Giver."


     The thunder band chieftainship is now
all broken up. This is because the government
appointed chiefs as head of groups of villages
who had no right to chieftainship since they
belonged to other than thunder band. The
new chiefs were appointed by agents. The
old way, Thunder band furnished chiefs and
bear band furnished soldiers and "talkers",
those who notified the people.


Chief = hũk
female chief = hiṹgiwi – chief's daughters
  all daughters = chieftainess, but the older one
has more say, if she is fitted for it.
Chief appoints one of his sons to succeed him,
  the one best fitted for job.
Chief's sons = hũ(garlá) hini(garla)
                             gra            gra
  No specific names for crown prince or princess.
Both male + female children, collectively are
  called – hũgᵋni‸kᵋtcʌk.
manapehũk – head man of bear clan.
  May appoint some other man in clan
to represent him at any place where
his presence is desired.
Clan chief succeeded by "best man" in clan
  for job. May or may not be son.
hũk may be succeeded by brother, brother's
  son or nephew; in other words, best man
for the job.
hũk, through his knowledge of everything, is
  only man who can say who new hũk shall
be. New chief must be carefully trained
under him.
Hũk known by "medal" worn on breast.
  No one but high chiefs wore these.
Bear band distinguished by shell
  gorget (wakís). Also could tell by
name. No distinguishing facial paint


Man's bear clan name
         wapísnap'ĩ́ka (wearer of shell gorget)
         hokerlĕṹga (of Indian flag one)


or dress marks.
    Chief did not give orders to the people. He
  told bear band man and they told the people.
They talked for the chief.
  Young man likes certain girl. Women get
the wood, in proper lengths, for fire. While they
were out getting wood. Young men go down
there and try to copulate with her. If she
is willing, and this is done several times,
she marries him. If she says no, he doesn't
try any more. Sometimes told father about
it, if they felt like it.
  When she willing and they have tried
each other out, time set when they will
become married. His female people get together
present of goods. These given to her, and she
gives them to her brothers, maternal uncles and
so on. Later, she goes to his house with
present‸.she wears most of this material Gives them to him. He gives these to
his sisters, maternal aunts, nieces, etc.
    First night of marriage, young man sleeping in
  her house, he rises early next morning and goes
hunting. When returns, he places deer at wood pile,
where meat is kept, and divides it amongst her
maternal uncles, brothers, etc.
    The man's present is all man's goods.
    While with her husband's relations, she does
  all household work.


1st day at her home, next day at his house.
If she can't carry all things from her husband's
relations, her sister or similar relative may go
with her to help carry them.
  When she gets a child, her husband's maternal
aunt or niece, give presents to child. Present
is called nĩktcʌ́k ukurlu.
hiʌ̃´tcla or tcatci
hi’unína or nani
elder sister
}  hinúkwatcapla
younger sister
paternal aunt
daughter of           "       
elder brother
}  wã́kwatcapʌla
younger brother
fraternal uncle
father's sister

      taboo -
      joking relative

maternal uncle's wife
husband's sisters
husband's brothers
"          pat. aunt
"  mother's sister
"       "    brother
wife's pat. uncle      
"      "     "  's wife


wife's sisters
wife's brothers
{ hitcã́-la (one)
hitcã́wahiga (plural)
wife's father's sisters
son's wife
"when old folks talk about him"
When woman dies, husband's female relatives
dress her up on 4th night –
When man dies, wife's female male relatives
dress him up – 4th night.
  her father, mother, mat. brother uncle + his wife included
    in mother-in-law taboo.
  Same is true in reverse.
  mother's sister — enúkᵋla
mother's brother – hiníkᵋla
  Mat. aunt's children called brother + sister
Mat. unk.        "           "    uncle
  father's sister's children { M - hitcṹskĕ (same as nephew.)
      F - girls = hitcũjʌ̃´k (same as niece)
  father's brothers children —— brothers + sisters.
father's brother – hinukás
    If father dies, step-father also called hinukás.


step-mother   = hiunínigᵋla        
son's wife's mother
} = wotcãwãk - [..........................y]
daughter's husband's mother
      mother [......] to
          children's mother
  Levirate in practice = wazĭ́́khukalralrok
    = for man to marry sister-in-law.
  hitcawikit’ĕ = widower
  hikãnákit’ĕ = widow
    Husband's brother might marry her. This called –
  wife = hitcawína
  husband – hikʌnʌná
      hitcawĩ́wahilra = plural wives.
    hilrakwã = ‸man or woman who leaves him or her
      husband mate for another man mate.
  Friend = hitcakoró
  hikiná = inseparable friends or companions.
    grandchild = nĩktcʌ́kako’gitca
   hwakínukwirla = our brother = stranger, guest.
  one of another tribe or band.
hitcokesaktcĩ́ great-grandfather


hikorokesᵋak tcĩ́hiwahĩwila = great
enemy = hokitcdjĕ́ hiwatcápuila.
sᵋakĩwahiwila — those of elder generation in
  one's family.
relatives – { wazókina
  both mean same.
spirits, collectively { wakopiniwarátcilrelra
son's wife's father
wotcã́wak            ?
daughter's husband's father
father's brother's wife
father's sister's husband
mother's sister's husband
husband's father's brother
wife's mother's brother
wife's mother's sister



     hikíƙa = line on edge of village where
soldiers line up for start to battle. Also the line
formed by soldiers in battle.

    Sometimes, when soldiers are preparing for
battle, a young woman with fancy for one of
them (one of single ones) would take a present and
offered him a present – food or moccasins. If
he did not want her, did not take present.
This was occasion for shouting and laughter by
others. If he took present, it was like a promise
of marriage. If he is killed in war, she
mourns as though he were her husband.
    When going to war, advance on line.
Then bear band warriors, who carry the "flag,"
may stick it there in the line, which means
that they will perish there before retreating.
Whole line then fights desperately.
      flag = hokereũí
      fl The line of battle = watcũnák.
         when flag was placed as above.

166 (reformatted and corrected text)

  Míniwakʌ̃ —   Milwaukee.
  water | holy      
Story of origin of name by Sioux (not Winnebago).
Winnebago name for Milwaukee = décicik.
        bad lake.

Before the white people came here, the Winnebago lived about here someplace. They lived on an island. The Sioux came along with many canoes, to make war on the Winnebago. They could see the island. The Sioux saw the Winnebago on this island. They arrived during the day, but waited in hiding until night. There were only a few Winnebago, they said to each other. When nighttime came, they prepared to go. They all got in canoes, but one old man and his son were delayed and remained for a time on the land. At that time the lake had no waves but was still. There was no wind. The waters then began to swing around, like a whirlpool. Faster and faster the waters turned. The Sioux tried to land then, but they could not do so. They knew something had happened to the water. The old man and his son, about to embark, noticed the disturbed waters. So the young man said, "There is something happening here; let's not get into the canoe." All the other Sioux were drowned. So only the old man and his son remained to tell the tale. That is the reason that the Sioux call it "Holy Water."

See, "Origin of the Name Milwaukee".

167 (reformatted and corrected text)

That is also the reason the Winnebago call it "Bad Lake." That is all (jénʌga).

There was a man named Šųgépaga, who belonged to the Eagle Clan. He was a Warbundle maker. When he was first married, he was already a great dreamer. That's why he made a Warbundle. When he married, in early winter, her father and mother were still living, so his wife and he lived with her parents. Generally, the young husband hunted for his parents-in-law. Winter was hunting time and he went hunting often. Maybe he would take several days to reach good hunting grounds. When he arrived home, his father-in-law said, "Now we will move to a certain place to spend the winter." In those days, it was hardly ever permissible for one family to so isolate itself due to the risk from enemies. That is why they did not want them to do this. When he came back from his wife's folks, he said to his father, "My wife's family is moving away from the tribe, and I must go." His father said, "That is not a very easy thing to do. We will not do that." His father was a brave man, a noted warrior. His father said, "If the enemy strike, do not come home alone, die with your family."

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

168 (reformatted and corrected text)

So the time came for them to go. His wife's brother was in early manhood (15-16 years old). Then they went over there. It was on a river. There was an island where the streams divided. The water was swift and deep. Right by the camp was a natural bridge of rocks crossing the river. This was the only place where the river could be crossed. Then they began to hunt. Only the young men hunted. The old folks stayed at home. So the woman stayed with the father in camp. So they hunted every day, and brought back many deer and bear. When they had lots of meat, they made a meat-dryng rack (wopĭ́́kere). Then the woman's folks sliced the meat and placed it on the rack to dry so that it could be stored for later use. Some of it was smoked inside the tent. The deer fat they cut into pieces and mixed it with bear meat and poured it hot into a hole in the ground. This they also did with bear fat and bear meat. These they then took from the ground, scraped off the dirt, and wrapped it in buckskin. This meat and grease would be used during next summer. Some of it would be placed in vegetable soup and with corn. Heads and feet were also

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

169 (reformatted and corrected text)

singed in the fire, the hair scraped off, washed and dried. That is why they took all that they could kill. Some meat was slow-roasted on sharp sticks by the fire. This meat was called wawasų́nų. Bones, with some meat still attached, were roasted by the fire. The marrow was then taken out. This was used as a body ointment. This is called hisarakį́. Then they took the liners from the bear and the membranes. The gall was then taken out of the liver. The guts were also cleaned and washed good. The liver was slashed lengthwise, tied up in the membrane, and boiled, like weenies. Then these were dried. Brains were also taken out to tan deer hides. That's why they killed all they could during the winter season, to prepare food for the summer. This young man killed much meat and it was dried on the racks. Far and near he traveled on his hunts. One day he thought he would go still farther on to see what was there. So he woke early in the morning. There was snow on the ground. He crossed the river by means of the large rocks. On he went, not hunting, but exploring the unknown beyond. So he went beyond his former hunting grounds. Then he saw the tracks of enemy warriors, going towards the camp of his people. So he turned around and followed. He planned to pass them and arrive at the camp first, without being seen.

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

170 (reformatted and corrected text)

That is how he arrived at the camps first. Then his wife gave him food. Then he worried about what he had seen, while he ate; but he did not tell the old people. The old man said to his daughter, "My child, my son-in-law is not like himself. He is worried about something. He is not his old self." This she repeated to her husband. "Warriors are coming," he said, "that's why I am thinking of what we should do." Then he said, "Do this: both of you old folks and you and your brother, dress up warmly so you could run far and keep warm, and then proceed as soon as possible towards our village. Each for himself, as fast as you can. Don't you and your brother wait for the old folks. I must remain here and wait for the coming of our enemies. You tell our people to get here as soon as they can tomorrow. Start now. Don't stop anywhere. They, the enemy, will arrive sometime tonight." So they began hurriedly to dress. After dressing, they went on. "Don't worry about anything," he said to them. When they were gone, he went out and picked up some snow, and threw it up in the air. This was to make it become cold and snow. Then a north wind blew hard and there was a great snowfall. It was very cold. The snow

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

171 (reformatted and corrected text)

hid all their stored meat and belongings. He also cleaned out the fire and sprinkled water over the inside of the lodge. Then he threw water on the rocks which bridged the stream, so that it turned to ice. This ice covered the rocks. Then it became dark. So he waited at the near end of the rock bridge, hiding behind a tree, waiting for the enemy. It was still cold and snowing. The stream was deep and swift. That is why it did not freeze. After awhile, two men were seen approaching. It was the enemy. Stealthily they came, one following the other. He waited for them to come closer. When they were near, he placed an arrow in his bow and shot them and they fell into the water. There both of them drowned. After awhile, came four others. Still others were seen approaching. As fast as they came to the ice covered bridge, they took hold of each other's hands to make the crossing safely. That is how he drowned many by shooting one or two. The dead ones pulled the others off the slippery rocks into the water. Finally, a large number, looking for their warrior companions, came to the crossing. They could find no other place to cross. When they were all on the rocks, he shot one and all fell into the water. This he kept doing until he had killed many of them. After which

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

172 (reformatted and corrected text)

daylight came. Then others found another way across the river, and on they came in large numbers. They surrounded his tent. So they fought. This was a mighty warrior. Many he killed, and so they kept fighting. His wife and her brother came to the main village early in the morning. She went to his folks and told them. Her brother told his folks also. "Warriors are coming," they said. "He said for us to come. We started before dark. He stayed to wait for the enemy. His word is that you should come as soon as you can." When they heard this, the Bear Clan police made it known throughout the village. So they prepared themselves to go. And the man's father went too. They traveled fast. Towards noon, the young man started to fight his way towards the village. He would run ahead of them and then attack them from a new hiding place. That is how he did. More and more he killed of them in this way. This he did over and over. Shortly after noon, he caught his father-in-law and mother-in-law. They had been very slow on the trail. "Is this as far as you have gone?" he said. "This snow makes it hard to travel," said the old man. "We have done the best we could." "Go on," said

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

173 (reformatted and corrected text)

the young man, "I shall stop them here. I will not let them catch you." So they went on and he stayed. Then they heard him make a noise. Then the old man said, "Old woman, you go on. I am going back to see how it is with my son-in-law. I heard him make a strange call. I am going to see if anything happened to him." So the old man went back. When he came close, he saw the enemy had surrounded his son-in-law. He was fighting close up, striking at them with his bow. That is why he had called. That was because he broke the bow string, which allowed them to surround him. Then the old man joined the battle, to save his son-in-law. "I thank you for your help, my father-in-law," said the young man, "they had almost got me. Now I can fight harder." So the father mended his bow string. This was possible because the enemy ran back when the old man launched his surprise attack. Then their own people arrived. Then their enemies retreated before the newly arrived warriors. When his people came, the young man had lost one moccasin, but he had been fighting so hard that he did not know it. His people saw this and gave him a new one. When his father came, he said, "My son, you have done well. This will give me a good name among our people. You can rest now, for you

See, "The Warbundle Maker".

174 (reformatted and corrected text)

have done your part." So said the other to this young man too. He answered, "No, they have made me very angry. That is why I want to kill all of them. So they followed up the enemy and killed them all. Then they asked the young man, "How did you do this thing?" He answered, "Go towards my tent and you can see how it was done." So they went. There they saw the tracks of the battle, and the dead men lying about his various stands. When they came to his camp, they saw many more dead men around it too. Then they went in his tent and found men frozen to death in there. Then they saw many dead men in the river. "All these things he did," they said, "this Warbundle maker." This was his first fight. That is why he fought so successfully, because of the bundle. That is all.

See, "The Warbundle Maker".


A. E. F. sung by Informant.
  Other countries have various totems
American eagle is king of them all, whips them all
  Opᵋlítʌ̃ga | wohítigĕ | e makótci |
  wacténacíape |
  witcawaƙcĕ́p ƙetĕ | wohína |
    that big eagle                  beat them
  manakĕlĕ | pĩ | nacĭ́́nktcĕkĕ |
    all countries  good  they will stand up
    Big eagle beat them all. All continents
  are going to stand up good.
  Refrain first, and interspaced in between words.
    ai hai o hi a hai
    Record VIII


In the War bundle ceremony, the pipe was first
placed twice facing the East – for Night Spirits.
Then it was faced west – for the Thunder birds.
These are the directions from whence these spirits came.
    The offering of tobacco to the spirits during the
last of each set of songs of the War bundle ceremony
should be included in former accounts.

     The court [?] wooing of girls in menstrual huts, cited
by Radin, was done by young outlaws, contrary
to custom. This statement very positive.

176b (reformatted and corrected text)

This was before the city was thus. At that time there was a Winnebago town at that place. It was called Kų́skĕonąk, "Skunk Running Away." This is the reason for its name. In the old times, it is said, there was a white man's trading post. A Frenchman was there, trading traps, guns, powder, etc., for skins. That is why they called him "Skunk," because he was anxious to buy skunk hides. There were many wars in those days. One time, they went out hunting and trapping. Skunk went with these Winnebago. Then some enemies came to fight with the Winnebago. This happened at the spot where the city now is. After the war was over, they

See, "The Origin of the Hocąk Name for Chicago".

177a (reformatted and corrected text)

looked everywhere for Skunk. They could not find him anywhere. They could not even find his dead body. They never found him. They said, "He must have run away." That is why they called the place, "Skunk Running Away." That is all.

See, "The Origin of the Hocąk Name for Chicago".


List of feasts, ceremonies, etc.
  Beginning with early spring.
    About March – when leaves ‸and animals come out
      1. When snakes come out, gave a feast
(wakʌ̃´wohʌ̃) – gave tobacco, food +
red feathers to snake spirit. Men who
gave feast must have a ‸snake dream. ‸ate chiefly, birds.
      2. Feast to water (níwohʌ̃). Great spirit
gave water, celebrates opening of winter –
looked spring. Held at any water.
Given by Water spirit band. Presentation
of tobacco to water. Also gave red
feathers. Also ate meat.
      3. Bear + Thunderbird bands give feast –
Creation myth ceremony (wãkcíkoĩwo-
kárakihʌ̃). Given not by one man
but by whole band. Had feast.
Everybody had to give tobacco to Great
Spirit. Band leader = feast leader.
This was favorite time for giving
names to young children.


      4. War bundle feast, by warbundle owner.
Given after first thunder was heard. Knew in
advance when it was do, so most all preparations
would be made.
      5. Medicine lodge feast, given by a medicine
lodge leader. Offering of tobacco and red feathers
to medicine bundles + treated as altar.
mãkʌ̃´wohʌ̃.   No initiation.
medicine | boiling
      6. Feast for water spirit medicines, given by
owner. Also called mãkʌ̃´wohʌ̃.. Sometimes
5 was held, sometimes 6; sometimes both, but
separately. Prayers for all good things in life.
    Early fall – about September.
        Snakes – going – in time.
Same 6 feasts cited above.
Prayers for success "through the winter"
waƙopíni walátcidʌ hãhé hotcá pi –
          le la. = fall prayer.
        waƙopíni walátcidʌ hã́p hotcá pilela
               = spring prayer.


  Medicine lodge initiation ceremony
    Spring — to fall.

mãtcá – initiation ceremony = initiate.

Bear dance any time in summer.

Wanaƙik’ũ hãhĕ́waci
} night spirit dancing
    Any man can give this feast. If any
man dies, on fourth night they have
wanaƙi’ṹ. At this time, may have
night spirit songs + dances. Only warbundle
owners + helpers can sing these songs.
  The leader of this hãhĕ́waci (night spirit

dancing), give bundles of initiation sticks
to four leaders then bundle leaders. Give
each leader no. of pieces of meat represented
by no. of sticks. Waiters do this. Leader
assembles same no. of pieces of calico as he
issued sticks. Build long lodges. Calicos
hung up on long medial poles, hung
in four bundles (1 for each band invited)
12 or 13 in a bunch. Whoever was
buried, if a woman, or a man, suit of
clothing placed on pole with first lot


of calicos. Day before, tells great spirit what
he is doing and of the details of preparation.
Meat is divided and dedicated: 1 to great
spirit and one to night spirits. Then calico
is hung up, as described above. Then they
sing and dance. Each of four companies
has to [...] give on[e] set of songs and dances.
Leaders then take down, each their lots of
calicos. The dress is placed on the deceased.
Then the feast. After the feast dance again.
Everybody then has to dance. A stick
dedicated to night sprints, painted red, with
medicine bag at bag of tobacco near one end, and red feathers attached
to that same end (nanóƙa)‸.There is leader's stick in each bundle of invitation sticks. Drum =
leƙtcátcas = tambourine drum. Drummer
and singers, everybody gets up.

      Dance clockwise about house. Before they start
with ①, the singers and drummer stand at a and 
sing. They are faced by two or four girls, unmarried,
stand in front of them at b facing singers drummer
and dancing in place. They have calico sashes
over shoulder and across breast. Aft
Such girls called wacitcóni (dance leaders).


After four songs are sung in this manner, they
face about and start to lead the dancers about
the lodge. Each girl has a nanóƙa stick
in hand. If only two girls, each has 2 of
these sticks. One girl from each of four bands.
They lead each dance. After taking off calico,
the ban company must sing one song in this
way. Gr
    Calicos worn on shoulders by girls,
received from leader who took calicos after
dance, is given by each girl to her brother-cousin
or maternal uncle‸.or own brother, or any cousin. Probably beads in
old days.       Same after a feast is done, this is done.
Then more dancing. Any one who received present of calico
has to dance. When dancing stand in one
place. When this is finished, the drum is
returned to feast giver. Then he gives sings
dance songs. Keeps on singing until all have
danced out of lodge. That is all.
Don't know any of these dance songs.
    This same dance is may be held at any time
when there is a death during summer. People save up
calicos until ready, then give dance. Does not
have to be associated with burial.


Medicine men:—
  Three classes of n
    1. War bundle maker (waluhap kṹs)
2. Water spirit dreamer (wajã́tca)
3. medicine man (wʌ̃kᵋtócĕwĕ)
  All great men. Can do as much as any
man is able to do (spiritually). That is
why they are all respected.
    3. = good dreamer. Could cure any kind
  of sickness. Singing, imitating spirits, suck
disease out — have bone tube (wilás
The spirit use as dreamed is indicated by
marks on the outside of this tube. Bad
medicine due to bad dreams. This due to
fact that dreamer was satisfied with bad
dreams — did not wait for good spirits to come.
For example, deer, elk etc. preceding the

  walutc sác } given by
  waluƙap cowétca walutc
  medicine war bundle owner shortly preceding
a war expedition. Just came as med regular
       When bundle is taken into battle, owner
stays back with bundles and rewards for success.
He sings while the men are fighting.


  Before they started to war, warriors could were
told bundle owner what kind of prizes they wanted.
by bundle leader what they had to do to win
prizes. Leader says = waluƙáp nãwã. When
a man performed one of the listed deeds, sues he
returned for his prize. Then he sang song (same
name as above). Also called wã́kunak nãwã. This
is the proper name for this song. A warrior might
return to war leader to notify him that they were
hard pressed. Then he joined his band to fight.
He would summon a relative to guard bundle in
his absence. Never took bundle into the fight.

What is in medicine bundle: —
  1. reed whistles
2. war clubs (flat ones. belonging to night spirits)
(other clubs, with ball-head = mamátcĕ –
      connected with thunder birds. These were
also in war bundles)
  3. animal fetishes according to dream in bundle,
    clan totem or phratry made no difference –
also bear or bird claws.
  4. Medicines
5. Paints – for making certain "dream" designs to
    be used by all his bands clan.
  6. Always some tobacco, sometimes kinnikinnick.
7. Kinds of headdress. Sometimes whole birds.
8. – skin "rings" – used for necklaces – represented
  8½ — fire drill.
  9. – Prisoner ties – not sacred, but for emergency use.
    Same true of small rattles.
Pipe tied outside war bundle. Only used in
  time of feast.


wawús – Something like paper or birch bark,
  found inside oaks or old maples. Used as tinder.
          vegetative mycelium
          of trametes obietes
  or: merulius lachrymens
Bow drill not old among Winnebago.
  When anything happened that required tribal
action, notified chief. Chief then notified bear
band. Bear band cried out council announcement
through village. They told the

  wiwãƙ´ = elder leader of any band, has to tell old customs
  question    ||
  if given a present. Not name of man, but his function.

wãkƙʌ́tĕ̃‸niŋgila = oldest man, heads of families.
These also called tcíkĕlĕla = "home keepers".
Chief then gives feast (no special name). Also furnishes
tobacco. Old men invited to council. Bear
criers tell of subject to be discussed. Bear criers [?]
= Ma If no decision, meet another day. In
council, mãnápe talks first. The He has
to find out what they all think about it, judge
their decision. Majority rule. They notify
bear leader and he gives decision. Bear leader
is leader of all things on earth surface. Each
band decided their view point and appointed
one to represent their opinion in council.
Wa’ĕ́hi = something to be talked about. Only
name informant knows for council. One of
war band present does not talk; sits down.
On fence. Says mean things about whatever is said


  by others. His is called wonáƙide wʌ̃kcĭk.
He agrees with nobody. Just an old custom.
If captive first goes in warrior band's house, he must
die. If he goes in thunder band's house first, he
must live. He sits opposite chief and advises
new actions. Chief treats all nice, like his own
children. Chief of warrior band treats everyone
mean. He is opposite Thunder bird chief in all respects.
    Each band has to meet to decide their attitude
  in local councils. No name for this council. Council
called by band chief. He is called
wã́kunihokilratc. Just family heads of
clan come to this meeting.
Murder   In case of a murder, murderer's band would meet,
  get present of goods. Then chief, murderer's people
and tied up murderer (with face painted blue)
would go to house of murdered man's people.
Chief would take his pipe. He would light the
pipe and offer it to head man of offended side.
When begin to be, custom told eagle band how
to live strong. Got fire, blazing straight toward
great spirit, not wavering, indicative of no
trouble in our lives. Thus straight going
smoke indicate no trouble. He made me
leader, also. That is why I have come
down here. ( etc.
    Other answers, "So." Tells how his band
  originated. Did not want any trouble, wanted

See, "The Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Version 2" (fragmentary).


  good + long life. If we forgive murder.‸no disease among them.
don't want this kind of trouble." Then
goods passed over to the offended, and offended
untied offender.
    One might get up and kill murderer right then,
  but in that case, goods not received. After goods
received, one of offended side could not kill
Story: —
    Each band, bird or animal people, had different
  position. When crossing river, different bands
possess certain things. Soldier bear people look
after village and tend to soldiering. Thunder
band have chief. Bear band possesses this the
crook‸(flag) Nephew of ‸bear band chief, bird [...], he
has two crooks (walrucʌ̃´ or wakíƙhʌna)
At any feast or gathering,
(hokelreṹ). This
kept in house of clan leader. Only one.
Bear band place upright sticks as barriers to common
people at time of special feast. Only those
concerned can pass through. Each bear
band leader appoints as many guards as
needed, and each one has such a stick. Described
and named before. Used also to strike disobedient.
End (bottom) shaved to appear feathery.


     If stick is so used, person hit, or relatives give goods to
policeman, sign of sorrow for offense. These goods
the policeman gives to the ‸old poor people of the village.
    Husband can strike, mutilate, cut off nose or
even kill unfaithful wife. Soldiers have nothing
to do with it.
    Man may kill unfaithful wife. She was warned,
but did not heed. Therefore, having spoken
kindly first, he has right to kill. So
one man might do so. Her brother may
have young unmarried daughter. She would
be offered the widower as wife [...]. This
called Hisarákiki. Dead wife's relation
also gives widower suit of clothes and paint
his face and comb his hair. This indicates
he is not to mourn for dead woman. The
girl that is to become his new wife sits
down beside him.

187b (reformatted and corrected text)

A man would always go out hunting. He had a wife, and she had ten brothers. He hunted and would always kill a deer or bear. On one hunting trip, he took his wife with him. One day the enemy came upon the lodge. There they found his wife alone and captured her. He had said to her, "If you are ever captured, I shall be there, don't fear." When he returned from

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

188 (reformatted and corrected text)

the hunt, he found his lodge burned and his wife gone. He said, "Well, I told my wife I would be there. I must get ready and go after them." So he cooked food to eat and to take on a journey. He also took extra moccasins. He went following their tracks. He came to that place, at the village of the enemy. It was daytime when he arrived, so he waited until it should be night. Then he went towards the village. He came to the watering place. There he hid by the spring. Then one woman came with a pail to get water. He recognized her, "This must be my wife." Then he spoke, "Is that you my wife?" "Yes." "I told you I would come, that's why I am here. We are going home now." Then she said, "Let me get my blanket and moccasins." "No, we will go now before it is found out that I am here." But she went back. She had married the chief's son. As soon as she got home, she told her new husband that her former husband waited by the spring. His men surrounded the man. They captured him. He was placed in the middle of the lodge. His arms and feet were tied to stakes in the ground. Then he was shown his wife playing with her new husband. They made fun of him.

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

189 (reformatted and corrected text)

So people gathered together at the village. They talked the matter over as to whether they should kill him or not. They gathered together in the chief's house. They decided not to kill him because he had gone first into the chief's home. Something might happen to them if they killed him after that. So said the old men. The chief's son, however, wanted to kill him. "This is our enemy. How shall we save him?" So they finally decided to kill him. So they decided to take him outside the village, stake him to the ground, and run over him while riding on horseback. After four days they got ready to do this. They pounded corn and boiled it. When it was very hot, they made him eat it with his hands. It burned his hands and mouth, but he had to eat it. Then when the time came on the fourth day, they took him out of the village and staked him to the ground. Then they ran over him with horses, but the horses jumped over him. "Let us go altogether," they said. This they did, and the man was killed by the horses. Then they said, "Our brothers the wolves, if you are hungry, here is food for you." Now this man had dreamed of the

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

190 (reformatted and corrected text)

Wolf Spirit. At that time, the Wolf Spirit told him, "When you have hard times, remember me. I shall answer your prayers and come to your assistance." One wolf heard his enemies cry. When he got there, he recognized the man as the one protected by the Wolf Spirit. Then he was sorry. Then he thought how he would bring him to life again. So he went around the dead body clockwise. When he had finished the circle, he sat up facing east. Then he called, "Wu-hu-hú-u-u-u-u." Then he made a second circle and repeated the call. Again he circled and called. At each circle the flesh of the dead man healed up more and more. The old wise men of the village said, "We have never heard a wolf speak like this. Something is about to happen to us." Younger people said, "We told the wolves to eat that man. They are there now. That is why they say that." Then the wolf circle the man a fourth time, and repeated the call. Then the man sat up. He was alive again. Then he saw the wolf sitting by him. "Well, you forgot me," he said to the man, "I told you to let me know when you were in trouble. If you had

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

191 (reformatted and corrected text)

notified me, this would have never happened. If you wanted to, we could take home scalps, but it is best to wait until you return home. Then we can return and fight them. We will come together." This the wolf said. So they went home to his own village. Then, arising, Wolf said, "I shall wait here in the woods for you. When people go to war, they give a four nights feast (the Warbundle Feast)." So when he came to his village, people asked, "Where is your wife, that you come home alone?" Then he told her brothers all about it. Everything that happened, he told them. Then the oldest brother said, "I am sorry. My sister should not have done that." So he had a young daughter that had never been married. "I am sorry for you," said the older brother, "but it can not be helped. So I give you my daughter to be your wife. I hope she doesn't treat you like her aunt did." Thus he received a new wife. The wolf man had said, "Wait until we get back, then she shall be my wife." Then they began hunting for the feast. The wolf had said, "If you want to see me at any time, come to me here where I am." This he then did. The wolf said, "As many as you want, deer

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

192 (reformatted and corrected text)

and bear, you shall kill." So he built a long lodge for the War Feast, outside the village. Then they feasted for four nights. Every evening the wolf came down to the feast. The man always gave him raw meat when he came. The people all saw this. After the feast was finished, they prepared to go to war. Nearly all the young men went with him. A crowd of them went. The whole village was going after them. When they came there, he said, "We will capture this girl and her new husband. No one is to kill them, but take them alive." At nighttime they came there and waited for morning. They surrounded the entire village. Wolf said, "In the morning, we will be west of the village. Before we start, let one from the north, one from the east, one from the south, and one from the west, give a warning. 'Ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų‘,' say that," he said. "That will be the signal to begin. Do not say this until you hear me cry." Then they did this. There they began to fight. Then they followed the wolf's instructions.

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".


There the man went out to capture the woman and her husband. So the fighting began. Many were slain, but the chief's son and his wife hid. So they searched for them. Finally, they found them and captured them. They tied them up. Then the man gave the signal to quit war. "Kú-u-u-u-u-u-u!" he said. Then both sides stopped fighting. Then this man said to the enemy (Osage), "If I wanted to, I could kill you all. You are in the wrong here. What you did was wrong. You took me into the chief's home, that is why this has happened to you. If I wanted to, I could kill you all. Hereafter, you have a bad chief, since there was murder in his home. So that we be friendly to one another, come down and visit us. We are going to kill your chief because he is bad. We are going to start it again." Then they went home. Many scalps they took with them. Then his oldest brother-in-law received four scalps from him. The chief's son and wife were taken down to the lodging of the Warrior Band chief. The oldest brother

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

194 (reformatted and corrected text)

said to him, "Do not go down to see our sister. She is wicked. She has acted badly." So he did not go down to see his wife. She asked to see her former husband, but he did not go to her. Her elder brother said, "You do not need to go there, since she has one with her whom she loves more than she loves you." This he said with sarcasm. The warrior chief he told to treat the prisoners as badly as he wished. So they did. When the time came to kill them, the Warrior Band built fire outside. Then they set in hardwood posts near the fire. To these the prisoners were tied. Then they took a stick of fire, with live coals at its end, and burned their skins in this way. When a coward complains of such treatment, they make him suffer longer. If they show fortitude, they are killed quickly. The Warrior leader, when about to execute prisoners, painted his body all red. No one talked to him, for his answers were always mean answers. This was according to the old custom. This was the Warrior Band's duty. All the people gathered around. Then came her oldest brother. All her relations and her former husband saw this. She said, "Brother, I thought that you would save me." "No, we couldn't do that, because you are a bad woman. You stand with our enemies. Our brother-in-law loved you and went after you, but you betrayed him. In this you did wrong. So you have brought this fate upon yourself.

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

195 (reformatted and corrected text)

You have no right to complain. That is why we cannot help you." Then the wolf man said to the chief's son, who cried out whenever fire touched him, "Say, young man, when I was your prisoner and you killed me, I did not cry out as you are doing. You were mistaken. You were a chief, but you murdered me after I was taken to your home. That is why this has come to you. Our Great Spirit knew that and so you are now suffering. So you suffer a mean death." When they killed him, they heated a stone red hot. Into this fire with the hot stone they threw the prisoners. They killed all who had done it. Then the wolf man was given his new wife. Her brothers all gathered goods and gave them to the wolf man. He divided their goods among his female relations. They then gathered the goods and gave

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".

196a (reformatted and corrected text)

them to the bride's father. That is all.

See, "The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 2".


Says nephews of Chief guard doors of council and
  designate seats for those attending. Says no
definite order.

  All different bands do something like this.
Man + wife. Wife = eagle band. They have
children, boys + girls. Wife's relations, eagle
band, all her sons call Eagle men uncle. All
her girls also call them uncle. All her sisters
and aunts the children called mother. So
whatever feast the Eagles give, these nephews
and nieces serve as waiters. Men as waiters,
women tending to buck skins. At Buffalo
feast, woman wait on "clan uncles". Or
she would work in "clan uncles" home. The
Eagle band then call these children,
utcuwumínʌk = where eagles came from (?).

  Thunderbird clan (up)  —  wakʌ̃tcaí|hikikaratc.
  Bear Clan (down)  
  Eagle clan (up) — witcawaƙcĕ́p  
  Wolf clan (down) — { suktcʌ̃´k ————
  Buffalo clan (down)     tcai | ————— "
  Pigeon clan (up)          lutcgĕ́ ————— "
  Snake clan (down)      wakã́ ————— "
  Warrior clan bird (up)  wonáƙide|wʌ̃kcĭk.
  Water spirit clan (down) waktcĕƙí | —— "
  Fish clan (down)            hó   ————— "


  Deer clan (down) } same: { tcá ——— "
  Elk clan (down) hũwã́‘ —— "
  Thunder bird and warrior
  Bear and Wolf.


"Wolf band are my tcakóro." = friends.
  no other relationship between bands.
In old times certain bands practiced [..? ..]
reciprocal marriage, but informant knows
none of details.
  Never heard of opposite seating, any place,
for phratries.
  War to  Warriors of each band had characteristic
weapons, different in detail from those of other bands,
due to the instructions received from his spirits
by the war bundle leader in each band. Different
markings, etc. Besides these, general markings
for all bands – lots lightning signifying
thunder birds.


    (waikʌ̃´ – name of any real old story).
  Long before coming of white man. Club
made of elk horn. Never saw one. These
called, uwãhemãmã́tce it is called.
Things possessed by any warrior dreaming of elk
Woman's place in house.
  She was, generally, boss in house.
She distributed the food. They asked for
    second helpings.
  she determines what to be served at each meal.
Man may say, if tired of meat, "Let's have some vegetables."
She has the determines the place of storage and
    is custodian of foods + supplies.
  She has charge of unused clothing, and similar
    supplies. She takes out to give to those who
  Old men made bowls + spoons.
When men stayed home, made bows + arrows.
Young son in law or son head of family, but
    heeded old folks advice.
  Relatives, especially own band of man, took care
    of old folks without young protectors.

199 (reformatted and corrected text)

  meat, any kind =  waní‘
  vegetable, "     =  wóhitca

Two young men called each other "friends." They grew up together and were always with each other. In the old days, they did not marry too young. Both were swift runners. They used to race just the same, never beating one another. Both were single and did not use tobacco. One said, "My friend, we cannot beat each other. Let us do different things. One will get married and one will use tobacco." So they did. Then they went out hunting. After hunting, both carried back a deer. They passed through a little prairie. Said one, "My friend, this is a good place to fight. I wish we had enemies around." "Don't say that," said the other. "Maybe we will strike that." "This is a nice place to run," said the first again. "Let's see who is the best now." So they deposited their deer on the ground. Then they left their bows and arrows there also, so that they could run. Then they got ready to race. Before going, one of them saw feather waving above the bushes, on either side. "Say, my friend," said one, "you wished for enemies. They are around us, I think. We don't want to go any farther. Let us run as fast as we can to where we left our bows and

See, "Tobacco Man and Married Man."

200a (reformatted and corrected text)

arrows." "All right," said the other, "let's go." Their enemies tried to get them first, but the two beat them there. Tobacco Man got beaten in this race. They were surrounded by their enemies and started to fight. These fellows were very smart fighters, it is said. They did not get killed, but they killed many of the enemy. Then they went home with scalps. This is about Tobacco Man getting beaten in the race. Married Man beat him. In the old days young men were not supposed to smoke much. That was for the old men. That is all.

See, "Tobacco Man and Married Man."


    Women did not smoke in old days.

    Men raised + harvested and prepared

Medicine Lodge.
    Wastciŋgéga – rabbit.
      He calls all men folks his uncles
  "    "     " [women] "  "   mothers
        just like relatives in law in clan.


Boys Childrens education: —
  Father ‸or grandfather made him bow + arrow as soon as big
    enough to use. Other boys taught him.
  Mother taught girls their work. Sometimes most always,
    grand mother, on either side.
  No definite rule against boys + girls playing
    together. But when sunset, children had
to come in. Bad spirits out at night, so
children must be indoors. Old people said
this. Wakopínicicik = "bad spirits".
  Never spanked children. Blackened face and
    made them fast for one meal. Went without
lunches, etc. Small children like to eat and
so were afraid to do that again. If
boy and girl were immoral, girls mother's
people scolded her. Boy mother's  also
scolded by girls mother or her female relatives.
Girl's mother would notify his folks. The
thing was spoken of as being done at too
early age. They replied, that is right.
If when they are older they love each other,
we will encourage them to marry. So they
remembered that and told the boy + girl that
they were to be husband + wife when older.
Not to fool with each other until older. This
acted as a promise providing they behaved
themselves in mean time. If they obeyed,
when fresh meat was next killed, ‸some of it was
given to her people. Her folks returned
present of vegetable food; sweet corn, dried
squash, etc. This was engagement. Boy
would feel sorry when scolded, or he might
be unaffected. If he is sorry  They might be
both angry, and meet each other secretly. If
When grow older, may run away. Maybe


    boy would refrain from further associating
with girl, on account of his anger against
her mother. If they became estranged, probably
no engagement.
  Bear feast – manápe wací
    Not a religious dance.
Might be given by any prominent bear band man.
Never saw it.
  The Bear feast, given elsewhere, was the one where
    no one could make any noise and where left
hand only could be used. Fire was allowed
to die down just so they could barely see.
No laughing + no talking, no noise. No
dancing. Feast and presentation of vegetable food,
tobacco + red feathers. This feast = hṹtcu|wohṹ |.
                                                                   |  boil    |
    given by bear band leader.
  Clans did not have special clan house where meetings
    were held and where ceremonial paraphernalia were
kept. Chief's house used for these purposes.
  tci sĕ́rĭclakunuk = one who told evil tales
    about other people in long house – evil gossiper.
Word means "to cut tent in two". Often resulted
in partitioning lodge off into separate, closed
sections, or moving of part of large paternal
family into new house.
  Prisoners might be kept for a time in house
    bear clan lodges, but eventually turned over
to Warrior band.

203 (reformatted and corrected text)

A woman who stayed with her husband's people was called a hinųk cĕ́k. When anyone did this, her folks gave meat from time to time to her people. This girl was going out with a hunting party consisting of her husband's people and also her maternal uncle's people. They lived in different tents in the camp. When they hunted, they killed no deer or large animals. So they went hungry because there were no animals to kill. So her husband finally killed a coon. Her husband's folks did the cooking. It was then placed in a wooden dish and they told her to give a piece to her uncle, since he was hungry. This happened at night. She stopped some distance from her uncle's tent. There she ate the meat herself. She ate all of it. Then she wiped her hands and mouth with gravel; she thought it was rock that she used, it being dark, but really it was rotten charcoal. When she came back to her husband's house, where it was lighted, he said, "What is the matter?" he said. She then sensed what was wrong. "My uncle told me to do that way before I came in, so I did that," she said. So he noticed this. "That's too bad," he said. So she was ashamed.

See, "Black as Sin."


  Murderers were certainly not tried in Thunderers
chief home. If any prisoner entered this house, he
could not be killed. Any murderer or other offender
fleeing from the wrath of injured party could find
temporary sanctuary in house of Chief. Murders
not tried in any house. There would be gatherings of
murderer's people, injured people, and chief would be
summoned. All this not done in any home. If
a reconciliation was attempted, it was done in
house of injured party.
    If you go in any bear man's house, and
  say of something, "this is good", it had to be
given to you.

In Thunder bird clan, if one goes in and sits

  on large rocks used in fireplace, a present has to
be given him and he is asked to take another seat.
    Walracʌ́nʌ = any one who would say "that is
  good", of property in bear band house. He not respected.
Bear police: —
  Looked after war party organization. Established
    hikiƙaro lines. Sticks placed in front of
war bundle. None but bear soldiers could
walk in front of it. Kept general order.
  Not in hunts or harvesting camp.
Kept general order in village.


On war path: —
    Just before attacking the enemy, while still out
of hearing of enemy, each clan band must gather
before this bundle bundle leader and sing bundle songs (no dance).
Leaders start song and others join in. Leader has
the rattle. All singing at once, asking for more
power, but not listening to each other. Only
one bundle would be present, the bundle of
the war leader. Only one leader ever. Each
song was like a prayer to spirits of respective bundles.
Warriors might have parts of other bundles with them
to give them more strength in battle, but only
one whole bundle was taken to the front, that
of the leader of the expedition.
    Scouts were selected from "good dreamers" who
were able to do that. They called waistcá’.
Maybe such a man would dream about ghosts,
or some such spirit, which go made them invincible
to enemy. Whoever dreamed of ghosts mostly
gifted this way; also those who dreamed of snakes.
This because a snake is hard to see, stealthy.
If he sees enemy coming, he calls like
owl. Or he may imitate fox or wolf. If
the leader mo scout is seen returning, the leader
shakes gourd rattle and sings a bundle song,
this is to protect give scout spiritual power to tell
of enemies actions.


     A day, or several days perhaps, before the actual attack
is contemplated. The war leader selects one man,
a good dreamer – "spiritual man", and gives him
a rattle and a flute. He goes out towards the enemy
to collect the souls of those to be slain in battle. These
he brings back to the war party. They are specks of
light contained in the flute. Then the war bundle
is opened and these are blown into the bundle.
Such a man is called Wanaƙíra kaku. He
would say to leader, "This many we are going
to get, but one escaped from the flute. That
man is going to be hard to get." Sometimes
they would get that one. This is accounted
for by the fact that the man sent out may
not be as good a dreamer as others present.
They might have stronger power than he
has, and so out do his predictions.
    Next day or next night, war bundle
opened again. Feast held before bundle.
Waiter cooks food, + place in two dishes. Food
divided equally between two containers. One
of them belongs to bird people; other to animal
people. One man selected from each side
to participate in food eating race. They eat before
the warbundle while leader rattles + sings.
When song started, they immediately start to
eat. None must be spilled on ground. Eat
only with hands. If any dropped it is a ghost
dropped, or loss of enemy slain. One may be


far behind in the race. The other, finishing,
eats the food in others plate. He thus has some
of the ghosts of the other side. His side will then
kill more than the other side.

207b (reformatted and corrected text)

He told this himself. When he was young, he was for a time in Kansas. He had a friend of the same age. His father died when he was a small boy. His father's brother married Pete's mother. Pete was raised by this step-father. He treated him like his own boy. In those days, they did not wear white man's clothes or blankets. They used to sport together, the two young men, going around and sharing their good times together. One time they said to each other, "Let us go after some women tonight." This they decided to do. Towards evening, they caught horses. They went towards the house of a certain young woman. It was quite a distance they had to go. They went for a way, and saw a black cloud coming from the west, but they kept on going. Still the cloud came closer. "Storm coming," they said. "Let's try to get to an empty house before it gets here," they said. Just before they got to the empty house, a great wind came. They tied the horses east of the house. The the rain started. They opened one window and went in. Then it rained hard. A big storm

See, "Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts."

208 (reformatted and corrected text)

with wind and rain was upon them. This storm did not last long. Before it quit raining, they heard someone making a noise upstairs. "Someone is there," said one. "No, it must be a ghost." So they went outdoors. The rain stopped and it was moonlight. When one tried to go out the window, the other pulled him back and tried himself, only to be pulled back in turn. They were afraid of the ghost. So it took quite awhile for them to escape from the house. Finally, one managed to get out. Then they got their horses and continued their journey. In those days, they had sheds in front of lodges, with a stepped pole ascending to the top. This young woman was sleeping on top of the shed. Before they got there, they passed a graveyard. In the moonlight, they saw a new grave. They they went to where the girl and her sister slept on the shed. The girls knew these young men, and were very sociable with them. Then one girl said, "It's too bad that you came down here. We have had bad luck. Our younger sister died. So we should not do this; the old folks wouldn't like it. So you will have to go back at once. So they went home before daylight came. When they passed the graveyard, they were riding side by side. They heard someone right behind them talking to them. They didn't see anyone but they heard the voice. It said,

See, "Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts."

209 (reformatted and corrected text)

"I was going to ask you something last night, but you were afraid of us. That's why I did not speak last night." Then they both speeded up their horses, but one ran faster than the other. Still they heard the talking. "I was going to ask you to tell my people to dig me out. I came to life again, and if they do not soon dig me out, I shall be really dead. So notify my people to dig me out," said the woman. His friend left him behind, so he was left alone with the ghost. Then he thought of an old saying that to escape from a ghost one must cross a creek. Then he tried to reach a nearby creek as soon as possible. When he crossed the creek, the voice stopped and was heard no more. He could not find his friend anywhere. He got home at sunrise. Then he drove the horse into the pasture. Then he went into the lodge of his people. The old people were not up yet. He tried to sleep, but couldn't. After awhile his uncle said to him, "My son, something must have happened to you. You are not like your old self." "No," said Pete, "nothing has happened." "Surely something has happened to you," said the old man. Then he told him what he had heard. "We must notify these people, get your horse," said his uncle. The young man did not like to do this, but he went after the pony. Then they went to the girl's people, the young man and his uncle.

See, "Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts."

210 (reformatted and corrected text)

When they arrived, the uncle told them about it. That family consisted of the two girls, one brother, and their mother and father. The father then became angry. He went to take his gun to shoot them, but his son and daughters prevented him. "This may be so, we must try and see," they said. So they dug up the body of the dead girl. They found that she was alive. Then her father said, "Well, this is going to be your wife, because you caused her to live again." so he spoke to Pete. Pete said, "No! I don't want her to be my wife. I would rather that she should be my sister." "All right," said the father. "Call her 'sister'." Then he gave some horses and clothing to Pete. He said that he did something like this four times. Three times it was as above. The fourth time it was different. The second time, he had been sporting around with his friend, playing the moccasin game. He hardly got any sleep. One time one said to the other, "Let's go to the store and get some tobacco." So they went to the store. Before they got there, they passed between two grave yards, one on either side of the road. There were some platform burials in these graveyards. When they were opposite the grave yards, they heard someone shouting. Turning, they saw one corpse sitting on top of a platform. He said, "Whoever you are, go tell my people that I am alive, but that I am too weak to get up." So they went to tell her folks.

See, "Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts."

211 (reformatted and corrected text)

They notified them. Her folks returned and found the woman alive again. So she went home. Both went along with her. They then received ponies and goods from her people. Another time it happened. An old man died. He was pretty well off, with much property. He had three race horses. He had one son. They gave a feast of four nights. On the fourth night everyone was invited, for they were going to give away his property. The three ponies were also to be given away. Towards evening of the fourth day, at sunset, all gathered to this feast. These two went too. Before they got there, they said, "Let us swim, because we have to sit up all night." So they swam. After dark they arrived at the place. The old man was right by the road at the grave. They heard him shouting, "My son, tell my people that I am alive again, but I am too weak to get out of here." Then they saw that he was out from the waist up, with tobacco in hand. So they went and told the old man's son. He got mad and tried to kill them, thinking they made fun of him. People stopped him. Finally, they persuaded him to go down and see. They went over there and found him alive. Then they brought him home. The two young men received much goods and the three racing ponies. Finally, Pete went to Oklahoma. Before

See, "Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts."

212 (reformatted and corrected text)

he left, his friend died. Then Pete married a Tongaway woman. They had four children. He became a well to do farmer. Finally, his wife died. After awhile the two oldest children died. Then the smallest children were hard for him to care for, since he was alone. The children had a little dog to play with. After awhile, both children died. Only the dog was left to him. The Tongaway woman ate peyote, and Pete did too. After eating peyote, he heard someone call, "Say, my friend, come out. So he went out. He saw that it was his dead friend. There he was on horseback. So he told him, "Get on behind me and we will go someplace." So he did. Towards the west they went. Along a road they traveled when they came there, they saw a dead tree at the end of the road. It was a dry elm tree. All the bark was lying on the ground around the tree. His friend said, "Friend, get down there and move that bark away. Our road is in there. That is where we are going." When he moved the bark, he saw the road going on. On they went until they came to a river. The water was too swift for them to cross. Only by means of a large rock would it be crossed. "Don't look down in the water and don't think that you will fall

See, "Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts."

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off," said the ghost. This instruction he followed, and they crossed the stream. All this time the little dog followed them. "Now my friend," said his friend, "I am going to tell you where we are headed for. We are going to that place where your wife and children are, in the village of the ghosts. As soon as we get there, you will see your family in a big round lodge. Go in there. Your wife will be cooking something for you. Don't eat it all, because you will be eating at other places. After you have finished eating, two men on horseback will call you outside. Then you will go to another place with them. They again will offer you food. Don't eat it all, because you will have to eat yet again. When you finish in there, three men on horseback will call you out. They will all call you 'friend.' They will take you to still another place. When you go in there, they will offer you food. Do not eat it all. When you have finished, four men on horseback will call you out. They will take you somewhere and feed you again. Do not eat it all. When you are not quite finished, four more men on horseback will come. That is not our party. They will beg you to come

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with them to another ghost village. I don't want you to do that. I'll be there, too, and you can get behind me on my horse again. Then we will sure do it. If you have bad luck and we don't do as I have said, something will happen to you. When I come, I shall bring four moccasins which I have filled with ashes. Then, when I hand these to you, we will begin to run. The others will be after us. When they come near and threaten to throw you down, throw ashes back and they will quit. When they catch up again, throw ashes out again. They will then fall behind again. Do the same the third time. The fourth time will be hard. Throw the whole business at them, moccasins and all. Then you will be safe, if you have done everything right. Otherwise, you will have bad luck. Something is going to happen to you." So his friend said. When they came to the village, he pointed out the lodge of his family. The dog still followed. Then they went in. His wife directed him to go to the right and sit opposite her. The children were in the back of the lodge. The dog went in too. Then the children began to play with him. What the food was to be was not said. She placed the food before him. He ate only a little of it. Then came two men on horseback and called for him. He went

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with them, and it went as before. When he went into the fourth place, when he had finished eating, four horsemen came in, two young men and two women, very well dressed. They were very nice looking. The horses were also nicely fixed up. They were painted well too. They called him out. They said, "Come home with us. This is pretty quiet where you are staying, but where we are going, listen." He heard the drumming, then he knew there was a lot of dancing going on somewhere. Still more horsemen were coming, going towards this place. All were well dressed and fine looking people. "Come with us," they said. "Let's go down there." But he would not go. Then his friend came on horseback. "Get on, let's go," he said. So he did. Then his friend handed him the moccasins. Then the other party said, "They are gone, let's get him and throw him down!" So they pursued. A great many joined in the pursuit. When they came too near, he threw ashes back. This stopped them for awhile. When again they came near, he threw ashes back again. Again they dropped behind. A third time they came, and a third time he threw ashes back. They dropped back again. The fourth time, they

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nearly got him down. Then he threw moccasins and all behind him. Then they stopped their pursuit of him. So on they went. Back they came to the dead tree. "Well my friend, if I had not dared it this way, we would have had bad luck, but you did well. If the others had gotten you, then something would have happened to you, but you did as I told you to, so all is well." Soon they were home. When he entered the house, he saw his body sitting where it had been all the while. Only his spirit had gone. He had a place fixed in the corner where the little dog could sit. So he went to see the dog, but it was dead. Then, after awhile, he married another woman. She was of the same tribe. She had a boy already (about seven years old). That is why he had such good luck, because everywhere he went he saw ghosts. That is why he was always successful. "Well brother, I am going to ask you something, something you heard from the Winnebago, something that you would tell me." Where he lived, there are woods around there. There was one large tree with one big branch to one side.

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"This is my question. I had to live with something. You see that tree right in the hollow, with one big branch leaning down from the main part of the tree? I want to ask you what the old Winnebago say about this. There is in that tree an animal, a spirit animal like a cat. That is why I am having good luck. All these good things he had given to me. My brother, don't be afraid to tell me what you have heard from the old people about this one." "All right," I said, "I have heard something about this. I don't want you to feel hurt, but I am going to tell you the truth about what I heard, because you have asked me to. I am going to tell about what our old people used to do in the old times. They used to black their faces and make themselves pitiable so as to dream of a good spirit. They well understood their old customs. Two things they did not want to dream of: one was the grizzly bear, and the other was the little animal you mentioned. Grizzly bears give true promises, but the dreamer will surely be murdered. This other animal asks for four dogs. The old people know that it doesn't mean 'dog', it means children. So

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if one dreams of this animal in summertime, the west side of the tree, where the animal is, is marked out. Then the thunder will come and lightning will strike and kill this animal. So our old people did not take this dream. That's all I could tell you about what you ask me." That is all.

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There was a lodge containing one human being. He thought that he didn't know what he was. He wondered what kind of a creature he was. So he was surprised. Bare handed he was, with no implements for hunting or warfare except a bow and arrow. But he was a swift runner and he was very powerful. He never ate any meat because he had no weapon. Only fruit he ate. When he saw other animals he used to talk to them, but they did not answer him. He could not understand what they were. He had been accustomed to catch the animals and talk to them, against their will, but they would not talk back. While he was wandering around the country, he used to come home rapidly, he was such a good runner. He used to pull up trees by the roots, he was so powerful. Then he met some Indians, a man, his wife and brother-in-law. They went out hunting and camped where this man was. Finally, he met them out hunting. Then he looked at them and at himself. "There are men like me," he said. he was a very good shot with the bow and arrow. The two Indians came from a nearby Indian village. They asked this man where he came from. He understood their speech. While they were

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talking, a bear walked by, some distance away. The new men shot at it, but missed. This stranger also shot at the bear, and killed him the first shot. Then he ran to the bear and carried it to the Indians. He gave the bear to them. They were astonished to see him carry the heavy bear. This made them afraid. Then he invited them to visit his lodge, and see where he lived. He had many berries stored away, and he gave them some berries. When they were ready to go home, he wanted to visit their village to see how they lived. On the way home, they scared up three deer that the Indian missed. The stranger ran after them. he caught the two deer alive and dragged them to the Indian. The Indian then killed the deer. They butchered them and [dressed] them so that they could carry them. The parts that they could not carry, the stranger carried for them. When they all came to their village, he saw their women. This astonished him. He watched them closely. Then he saw some children. He had never seen the like before. One of these Indians said, "Why friend, these are what we call 'women'. They are different from us men." He looked at the children and he liked them very much. So he took

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one boy upon his legs. he was greatly pleased with him. When they invited him to their lodge, they boiled some deer meat. They invited him to taste it. He found that he liked it very well. The Indians said they were going home. They had plenty of meat now. He answered that the would stay where he was. Early in the morning, he came over to them again, just before they left. When they started away, he carried some of their stuff for them far away. Half way there he left them and returned to his place. When he left them, they left many of their goods at this pace, and returned for them later. They could not carry them all. Upon returning to their village, they gave a feast. This they usually do on returning from the hunt. They told the people there of the man that they saw who ran so swiftly and caught deer alive. Some of them did not believe the yarn. They were told to go and see for themselves. So some went up to see this man. So they met

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the stranger. They told him that they came up to try to get some deer. Then he went off and drove some deer up to them. He asked them if they wanted any bears. Then he went and carried two live bears to them. Then they believed the story that had been told of him. He used to go often with his two friends. Some of the fellows at the village told these two to bring the stranger back to the village so that they could all see him. They thought to make much of him. So then two invited him back to the village, so that he would see many women and children. This he did. Then, when they got close to the village, he offered to get some more deer for them. So he went after a drove of them. These he drove up to the men and they killed them, butchered them and left them there. The two invited this man to live at their house while he was in the village. He did not go visiting, but stayed about the lodge playing with the children. He loved to see them. There two asked him if he wanted to hunt, so that he would see the country around the village. There was no game right around the village. He said that he would kill deer any time. That

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was nothing to him. He told them to wait there. Then he went far away and soon returned driving a herd of deer. All the men tried to get him to marry one of their women. So they asked the chief if his daughter might marry this stranger. The chief was willing to accept him as a son-in-law. The two told him that if he married this woman he could have a child like one of these others. They explained then to him how a man and wife lived. Then he married the chief's daughter. They told him, when a young man married a woman, they generally went out early that morning to hunt deer and bear. So he went out hunting the next morning. He was gone quite awhile. He told his friends to stay there until he drove up to them. Finally, he came with a large herd. They asked for more. So again he drove some more deer up. He got some bears also. There was more meat than they could carry. When they returned to the village, a caller asked all the people to go out and help carry in the deer and bears which this man had killed. On the second morning he fetched a drove of buffalo. The third day, he fetched a herd of elk.

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That much of elk he drove to the hunters. In the early days, they urged children to fast so as to have good success in all things. That is why the chief's daughter had such a good husband, who fed the whole village, because she fasted when she was a girl. Some man-eating giants came to the village. Then the people of the village were very frightened, for they thought they would all be eaten. Then giants were not accustomed to fail then right away. They would play a game with them, and when the Indians lost, the giants would carry them off. The giants always won. These giants had a scout. He came to the village and asked for the chief, in order to get a place to erect lodges. By nightfall, they came to the chief and asked for a game to start the next morning. They challenged them to shoot bows and arrows. The chief had ten sons. In the morning all repaired to the game grounds. The chief's ten sons hesitated to wager with the giants. They were afraid. But the stranger told them not to fear; he guaranteed that they would win. The chief's youngest son and the stranger prepared to gamble with the giants.

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They set up a mark quite a ways off. The mark had two concentric rings. This was far away from the shooters stand. The stranger asked the giants to shoot first, since the other side had challenged. One giant shot and hit in between the rings. Then the younger son shot and beat the giant's shot. Then another giant shot, and beat the mark of the younger son. Now the stranger shot. he hit the mark exactly in the center. So they won the game. Then they claimed the forfeited lives of the giants and killed them both. They cut their heads off and roasted them over the fire, according to the instructions of the stranger. He told them that this would dry up the brains and they would turn into wampum. He told them how to take care of these so as not to break them. They used to shake them to hear the sound. He told them not to shake the heads too much or they would all be broken into short pieces. The younger son shook his head too often and all the pieces were short. The other was better. Then all the old people appreciated what the stranger had done for them: defended them from the giants. The next day, the giants wanted to wrestle for wagers. One of the giants challenged one Indian to wrestle. They asked the Indian if they would bet on the dead giants again. They offered odds of two to one. These giants were very large men. The biggest

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of all they chose to wrestle. The stranger prepared to meet him. When they wrestled, the stranger broke the back of the giant in two. Then they cut off the heads of the two forfeited giants. The same evening, the giants' scout came again and challenged them to a race. Two giants were to race two Indians. The stranger and the younger son came to race the giants. They were to start from here to the shore of the ocean and break and fetch back the top of a great white oak which grew there. The stranger reached the shore of the ocean and met the other thee, running even, on his way back, half way to the shore. They were way behind. So the Indian won the race. So they killed those two, cut of their heads and made beads of their brains, as before. Towards night, a giant scout came again to challenge them for a wrestling match again. Next morning they met. They bet the same as before. Then they selected the largest of all the giants. The stranger told the giant to take his hold first. Then the stranger took his hold last. "Now I am going to throw you," said the stranger. Then he broke the giant's back. So he won this match too. Then the giants gave up. At night, they went away. Then the stranger chased them,

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caught up with them and killed them all. The only ones he left were a woman and a little boy. There he told them not to come again. "I would kill you, but for the sake of the Great Spirit, who may not want you all to perish, I will let you off this time. But stay in your own land across the sea." The stranger and the chief's daughter had two boys. The stranger said, "I shall now leave you to go back to the land whence I came. My sons, you shall be like me, to protect the land against their enemies, and to be great hunters for them. I know that these giants were coming to destroy you. That is why I came, to protect you from them. Now they will come no more to molest you." The stranger was Morning Star.

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A Winnebago village was there, but one man didn't know his name. The chief of that village had one son. He urged his son to fast, so that some day his people could make good use of him. "Try to get the help of the spirits so that you can be of some use in life." So he fasted at the lodge (partitioned off). There he fasted according to the advice of his father. He had a dream. The spirits above and under the ground all came and blessed him. A certain spirit came to him and told him to give up fasting as all the great spirits had blessed him already. The next morning he told his father all about his dream and the word of the spirit telling him to stop, since all the great spirits had blessed him. His father denied it. He did not believe it. He told him that he only fasted a short time, while he, the chief, had fasted many times and still didn't know much. So the boy started all over again. The next night, the spirit came to him again. He said he was sent to tell him to stop fasting. Again he told this to his father. Again the chief did not believe him. So he started a third time. The same

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thing happened again. "Every spirit above and below has blessed you. So they sent me to tell you to stop. If you don't, trouble will come to you." The next morning he told his father again. Still the father did not believe him, and spoke to his son as before. The boy fasted a fourth time. That time, the Grizzly Bear Spirit came and blessed him. He said, "You shall have all things that you wish for. You shall be a great warrior. You can even turn into a grizzly bear at any time you wish. You can do anything that the Grizzly Bear Spirit can do. You can go to some other enemy and kill four of the best warriors that they have, even within their village. You can kill four of your own peoples' warriors right in the midst of your own people." He also mentioned the names of famous warriors he should kill. If he killed these four, he would get what was promised him by the bear. So he killed one man amongst his own people. Next morning he killed the second one. This around the village. Then the old people said, "Something has happened to us." So they offered each other tobacco to attack this menace to the village, but all refused to fight this man. They did not know who was doing this. That is why they did not accept the tobacco. They were

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greatly afraid. He killed the third one. Then they investigated, but they could not find out who was doing this. He killed the fourth one. So he fulfilled his bargain with the Bear Spirit. He was under the control of the fake spirit. That is why the good spirit urged him to stop fasting. They knew that this would happen. That is why they urged him to stop. Every day they held a council to try and find out who was killing their young men right in their midst. There was an old lady who lived on the edge of the village alone with her grandson. This boy was under age, but he could shoot with a bow and arrow. The boy knew of what they spoke, searching for the murderer. He came home and told his old grandmother of the search for the man who was killing the people. "I know of that," he said. "If they ask me, I shall tell them who it is." But the old lady refused to listen to him. "You have not fasted, and have no spirit powers," she said. Someone else heard what the boy said, and this was told at the council, what the boy had said. Then they filled a pipe with tobacco and went to the old lady's house. There they offered the pipe to the young boy. He said to offer it to his grandmother. "If she accepts the pipe, then I will tell the story." So

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they took him to the chief's place. He took his bow and arrows along. Then they came to the chief's place. Then they asked him to tell what he knew of the one who was killing their men. "Yes, I know who is doing that; I know all about it. You, chief, told your son to fast, and when he fasted, all the spirits above and below blessed him and told him to stop fasting. He told you that he dreamed of every spirit, but not believing, you told him to fast again." So he said to the chief, "You told him that he did not fast enough, that having fasted all your life, you had learned little, and so you would not believe that all the spirits, above and below, had blessed him. So he fasted a second time, and the spirit again told him, on behalf of all the spirits, to stop fasting, but something happened to him. All the spirits had blessed him. He would be courting trouble to fast again. Still you refused to believe. So he fasted a fourth time. This time, the spirit of the grizzly bear blessed him. He promised him everything, but, in order to get this blessing, he had to kill four of his own people." The son was still in the fasting compartment, in the same

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house where the council was being held. "That is the reason why the Messenger Spirit came and tried to stop the fasting. It is your own fault by forcing your son to fast four times. He is the one who has killed these men." As soon as the chief's son heard this, he went after the young boy. The boy had his bow and arrow. He pursued him all over the village. The boy ran over the roofs of the lodges. The village was close to the river, and the boy escaped by diving under the water. The chief's son, chasing him, dove in after him. The boy shot the chief's son with a bow and arrow and killed him. The chief's son was turned into a spotted grizzly bear. They took him out of the river and burned him. They even scraped up his blood from the ground and burnt that too. This was necessary to keep him from returning to life. The chief then sent for the boy. "You have done well," he said, "to save the village. I will make you my son. You will be the head chief and have control over the village form now on." So he became the acting chief of the village. So he became a full grown man. He planned to go out

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against the enemy, and set a certain day. A four-day fast was planned, offered to his spirits, in order to get favorable aid for his war expedition. At each fast he prepared four bear and four deer. So he instructed men to hunt for the bears and deer. He had "medicine" enabling him to kill grizzly bears, so they all joined in on the hunt. Many went on this hunt. On the way to the war path, as was customary, they gave him tobacco and asked him where he was going and all about it. But he did not tell them. A second time they asked him, but he did not tell them anything. Then some, because of this, went back. A third time they presented tobacco and made their enquiries, but he did not answered. Some more turned back. A fourth time they asked him, after presents. He said he was going somewhere against an enemy, but he would not tell them where, or any of the details. They could turn back if they wanted to. All but ten men turned back. All summer they traveled, so far they went. The fifth time they presented him with tobacco, and made this enquiry. "We are going there to [play] a game," he said. "There is an open place in the woods near a high cliff of rocks. Go until you see this, then come back and report to me."

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Two he sent on this scouting errand. They found the place which he had described, so they returned to the leader. So they all started out again. After a while they stopped. He told his men to help him so that they might win. I am going to run and jump on top of that cliff and crush it down. This shall be a sign. If I can crush the rock down, then I shall win." This he did, and they all gave a war whoop. "You have seen this sign. We are going to win." So they started out again. Then they came to a place where there were many teepees. It was a village of Giants. He sent a man to the chief of the Giants to gain permission to set up camp nearby. The Giant chief's lodge was in the center of the village. So he went there and got permission to camp. "Our chief sent me to ask where we may set up our tents." "You may camp anywhere you wish," said the chief. So they picked out a place to camp. The Giants got together and talked the matter over, as to what kind of games they were to play. One of the Giants got up, "Let us have a game of broad jump. I will jump for our party." This they all

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agreed to. So they sent a Giant messenger to the Indians to announce a game for the next morning. They accepted the challenge. When they were asked, they said that they were perfectly willing. When he got back to his people, he laughed. "They are willing. They are not afraid of us," he told them. The others said, "They must have some power, since they are not afraid of us and came so far to meet us." The next day, they met together and prepared for the game. The Indian leader claimed that he was worth four Giants. He would wager himself against four of them. So the wager was accepted and they prepared to jump. Some of them did not want to put up four Giants against the one Indian, but finally they accepted. "There is no use arguing about the matter," they said, "for now that they are here, they cannot get away." There was a big slate rock; they set this rock at a certain place from which to jump. "You take the first turn," said the Indian leader to the Giants. The Giant leaped and his feet reached into the rock up to his ankles. The Indian had appointed someone to mark how far they jumped. He reported that the Giant had sunken up to his ankles in the rock. The Indian chief then jumped and sank to just below his knees

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in the rock. Then he said, "In the next game, put up your really good men, so that you can really see my prowess in a real contest." Then he told his men to cut the Giants' heads off. Twenty-four they got, two each for the ten men and four for the leader. This done, they returned to the camp. Then he instructed them to put the heads won on the fire and dry the brains. That evening the Giants held another council. One got up and said, "You people know how I am. This other fellow tried and lost the game. I shall stand for you this time, and I shall out jump them. I shall win." So they all agreed. Then they sent a messenger to inform the Indians of their decision. The Indians expressed a willingness to the plans. Then the Indian leader instructed them to shake the Giants' heads. Something rattled inside, so he instructed them to open them and see what was inside. So they took out the wampum and were glad. Then they were commanded to the place of the conflict. They saw then a larger rock than the one placed there formerly. They bet the same way as they did before. Again the Giants wanted to refuse, but finally accepted the common terms because they thought

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that they would surely win. Again the chief selected a man to mark the extent of the Giants' representative jumping. The Giant was again to jump first. The Giant jumped and came down upon the rock, where he sank up to his knees. This was reported to the Indian leader. The Indian chief then jumped and sank into the rock to his crotch. So again they won and cut the heads off those Giants forfeited to the winners. They burned the bodies and toasted the heads again, as before. After the game was over, towards evening, the Giants held another council. The old men of the Giants were afraid. They had never heard of men on this world having so much prowess. They must have great spirit power. But the young Giants were not afraid of them. One rose and said, "You people know that I am a better jumper than these two. But they volunteered and lost. Now let me jump against this man." "All right, you shall represent us," they said. Then they sent a messenger to the Indian chief with the challenge. He accepted willingly. The Indians next morning opened the Giants' heads and obtained pure wampum. This made them very glad. So again they repaired to the gaming place. The bet was made in the same way as before.

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The Giant was again told to jump first, and an Indian was sent over to watch the result of the Giants' jumping. The Giant jumped and sank into the rock up to his waist. The Indian jumped and sank into the rock up to his neck. The Indian chief killed the Giants themselves; he bit them on the legs and broke them. When they shouted, he cut off their heads. Then the Giants protested that he should not make them suffer by breaking their legs first, but he answered that, having won the game, he would do as he pleased with the Giants. So this he did throughout the game. Then the Giants held a fourth council. They were now much afraid. A Giant arose: "I should have jumped in the first place, since I have often beaten all three of these others, as you all know." So they accepted his offer to jump for them. A messenger took the challenge to the Indian's camp. The Indian chief expressed himself as always glad to receive such a challenge, and accepted it. Every morning they opened up the newly dried heads to get the wampum, and rejoiced. Just before they started for the game, the chief sent an Indian out to get some cattail heads (sohí). Then he

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told all the men to stand back farther and make more room for the contest. When all was ready, they arranged the wagers as formerly. "Stand far back," said the chief. The Giants again consented to jump first. The Giant jumped on the rock and sank in up to the crown of his head. Then the Indian chief prepared to jump. He said, "Now, my brothers, I'll show you how to jump so that you will know who I am. Our Father alone gave me powers. So I have that power to live with." Then he ran and jumped into the middle of the Giants' village. The whole village was tramped into the ground and the Giants all killed. Then he spread cattail floss over the site of the village and set fire to it. All that remained was burned. That is the reason he told his own men to stand back when he got ready to jump. They had some white deer skins. Into these they placed the wampum from the Giants' heads. The place of the village was turned into a lake. The cliff of rock which he pushed down into the ground, was called "Shaped Like a Deertail" (Casį́ckuhą). It is on the east bank of the Wisconsin River. So they prepared to return home. Although all summer they had been traveling, he

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told them that they could arrive home any time they wished. "We have traveled a long while," said one, "Let's be back by tomorrow morning." "We can be home sooner than that," said the chief, "but since you have set that time, so be it. No matter whether we walk fast or slow, we should be there tomorrow morning." So they started. Early in the morning they arrived. Their people in the village thought that they had all been killed. They did not bring any scalps home, but they had plenty of wampum. The chief then got married and settled down, taking over the control of the village. He was an expert hunter. Any game that he wanted, he could bring home from a hunt. No enemy could prevail against him. He was wakárĕkuc. He had some children, one grown son. His son was like the father, a mighty hunter and warrior. Then the chief assembled the people in a council. He said, "I am going home. Don't worry about me. I shall leave my son here to defend you, even as I have. I knew that you people would be in trouble. Two times I knew this. From now on you will never see a Giant in

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this country. From now on people will call you Hocąk and you will never have trouble as long as you live." So he spoke to them. "I am the spirit of Wajijĕ́ (Comet). I am going back to my own place. I came to defend you from the evil plans of these Giants. If any Indian has a dream of a comet, he can kill any kind of game, he has that spiritual power. So he went away. That is all.

See, "The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum."


John Mojeheart, Menominee.

   Charlie Brown — Mrs. U.S. White + her father
         know names of camp sites S. of Madison.


  Clan member may have certain, ceremonial clan
    privileges in his maternal uncle's group.
  Clan member cannot dream more easily of his
    own totem than member of any other clan
can. Positive!
  Black bear dream is alright  >
Woman's name: —
     Sitcʌ́kiwĩga — she whose track is seen

243b (reformatted and corrected text)

The chief's son had a friend. They each called the other by the same name, Mášgotani. The chief's son did not act like a chief. He was not proud like most of the chiefs. He used to play with children of all classes, and associated with any people regardless of cast. When he became an adult, he did not hunt like the rest of them. He never went on the war path. His friend was supposed to hunt for a feast. He told some one that he would invite the chief's son to go along, so that he could stay at home and do the cooking. So he invited the chief's son, and the invitation was accepted. "I would like to go very much, but one thing I wish to ask you. I want to fetch home a deer head for my grandmother." The other didn't know whether one could be spared or not. "I must have one for my grandmother if I go," said the chief's son. "The leader shall determine this," said his friend. The leader said, "Alright, we need

See, "The Incarnate Thunderbird."

244 (reformatted and corrected text)

one head for the feast, and he can have the next one to take to his grandmother. Thus he can go." So they all went. At the hunting place they put up a lodge. The chief's son was a good worker and helped with everything. First they got two fawns. Both heads they gave to the chief's son. The remainder of the bodies were for food while hunting. Anything else obtained later was for the feast. The chief's son took care of all the food stuff, cooking, gathering firewood, and all the work while the others hunted. This was in the wintertime. They had good luck and killed a number of deer. After they got back at night and had supper, the chief's son said to his friend, "I think something is going to happen to us." But they did not heed his words, because he had never had a dream. They all went to sleep. Several times he told them of his fears. He did not go to sleep at all. About midnight he saw someone creep into the lodge. The chief's son took his blanket and went outside. He had noticed a hollow tree nearby. He went in there and slept for the remainder of the night. At daylight, the enemy gave a war whoop and went after those in the lodge. Then he came out of the hollow of the tree after it was all over, and went back to the lodge. There he saw all his people lying dead and the lodge had been burned. All their heads were cut off. He was accustomed to carry deer heads with him all the time. When he got there he said, "I wonder where he is?" He was surprised. "They should have told me if they had a quarrel with these

See, "The Incarnate Thunderbird."

245 (reformatted and corrected text)

people," he said. He could not find the body of his friend. "They must have taken him alive," he said. They threw all the deer meat all over, too. So he picked it all up again. "I will now eat," he said, "and then I shall look for him." After he had finished eating, he followed the trail of the departing enemy. By nightfall he had not caught them. They had not stopped anywhere on the trail. Next morning he started after them again. he traveled all day. The enemy knew they had missed someone. They had sent a scout who counted all the men. After the attack one was missing. The second night he came to where the enemy had camped. He sneaked into the camp near the fire. There were two rows of fires, and he was tied in the center. He saw two men watching over his friend. They were now sound asleep, due to the fatigue of their long journey, all but these two. Soon these two fell asleep also. When he knew that all slept, he went over there. "I am here," he said. "Hurry and untie me," said his friend, but the chief's son said, "Did you have a quarrel with these people before? Why did you not tell me, if so?" "Hurry and untie me," said his friend. So he loosed his bonds and freed him. Then he wanted to go, but the chief's son refused. "We must stay and get even with them. Let us

See, "The Incarnate Thunderbird."

246 (reformatted and corrected text)

gather all the weapons, and then get even with them." So this they did. Still they all slept. "Which of them is the leader?" said the chief's son. So his friend showed him. Then the chief's son killed him. There were two rows of sleepers, and each took one row. So they started, striking them one by one. When most of them were killed, one of the remaining ones awoke. "Run for you lives, our weapons are gone and our enemies are upon us," he shouted to the others. So they ran away without blankets, and it was winter time. Then the two friends rebuilt the fire. It was so cold, the others shivered and came back to the fire. Then they, too, one by one, were killed. The last one came back, and the chief's son said, "Let's tell him to go home. We don't want to take  him back with us." So they cut off his lips and both ears and sent him away. "Bring all you can with you when you come again," he said to the man. Then they gave him blankets and clothes from his dead comrades and sent him away. The chief's son said, "Do like they did to our men; take their heads off. Take all the heads of those killed and we will give them to relatives when we return home." This they did, and started for home. He kept the two deer heads, which he always carried on his person. When they reached

See, "The Incarnate Thunderbird."

247 (reformatted and corrected text)

home they distributed scalps to all their relations. Then he (the friend) explained how it happened and how the chief's son had killed all but one, whom he had sent back to his home to tell of it. The chief's son said that he had warned the others, but they did not believe him. After he had finished, he did not associate with the brave chiefs, as was expected, but played with common children again. The brave warriors invited him to their councils, but he paid no attention to them. Years after, the mutilated man's people came to avenge themselves on the two friends' people. The village people were being killed off fast. The chief's son wandered what was happening. He was not fighting. When he got back to his lodge, his father told him, "Do something, our people are being killed off fast." "No, they must have had a quarrel with these people. It is out of my jurisdiction." Finally, he decided to go and see "how these people play. "So he put on a blanket and leaned against a tree to watch them. When he saw one man knock down another, he laughed and said, "He must hate that man to kill him that way." Then they came after him. He forbade them to hurt him. "I never saw you before," he said. "I am not in this quarrel." They nearly killed him, but he ran away. Then he stopped to watch the fight again. Sons of the

See, "The Incarnate Thunderbird."

248a (reformatted and corrected text)

warriors came to him and begged him to help; all the braves were being killed off. But he refused to do anything. Again the enemy came after him. They missed him, as he ran away, but tore his blanket. He looked at his torn blanket. "You spoiled my blanket," he said, "Now I'll show you what I can do. He threw his blanket away and said, "Alright, now we'll fight." So he seized a club and began clubbing them to death. He killed them off fast when he did start. Then they ran away, and the fight was over. The enemy shouted, "O-o-o-o-o-o-o." That was a sign that the fighting must cease. It was bad luck to disobey such a cry. So he was ranked as an expert hunter and brave warrior. He told them then that he was a Thunderbird who had come down to earth. That is all.

See, "The Incarnate Thunderbird."


Clan names –
  male: —
    hĩ́sasaka – coarse haired one
watcĕƙímaniga – mean prowler
harukanaka – coming down
                       (as from a tree)
  woman: —
    ĩĩ́ƙka – whining (like a bear)
wawíŋka – certain aged bear
hotíhuka – climbing up
                   (on a tree)


  woman's name: —
    mãk’ĕ́ka – digger
  man's name: —
    wamániga – walker on snow.

On harvesting parties, clans camped by themselves,
  but had no certain place; camped anywhere.
At such times, if certain place was good place to go,
anyone, regardless of clan actions, could go. That is,
one family in a certain clan might go; others
stay, or go somewhere else. Clan camp was
established where clan chief went. At such camps
bear soldiers acted as a guard and kept things in
proper order. Liable to meet enemy at any [...] time
and necessary that things should be kept in
order. Never heard of soldiers protecting ripening
rice from birds, but it might be so.
Some of harvest, of first picking, kept for feast
(wikígo = part saved) upon returning to village.
Once food put aside for this feast, it could not be
used for any other purpose in any emergency.
Wakígo = feast of the wikigo. ‸Mid Winter feast
(náplohatc). Dedicated to various spirit (see other
notes on war bundle feast). Some of all harvest
set aside for this feast (Really for Buffalo dance
feast). In old days, dried sweet corn in dried
blueberries, boiled together, was a favorite food.
This called – warlúsku hastĭnĭkᵋ hirlokírla.
               one of high prized foods.


Another valuable food = dry sweet corn, roasted +
ground, mixed with maple sugar. Used as a
staple for long trips. Eaten dry = Wacuŋgĕ́.
Bags for this called warlúcĕ.
Five different kinds of Indian corn.
    1. warlutc ská – plain white - sweet corn
    2. warlutc cútskĕ – dark red.
    3. waƙoƙóska — all white (very white). for [..t..]
    4. warlutczí — yellow, smooth (like flint).
    5. wanukó — early corn, piebald, short.
        mã́wilohʌ̃  = hole dug in ground for
       ground boiling
cooking corn (some times 4´ deep). When ‸sweet corn was
milky, it is best for this. One man gives feast.
He gets up fire wood + some stones. He appoints
several men to help him. He also prepares food
for helpers. Any one may be selected to help.
My be nephews. Get together early in morning.
Some pick ‸waruwĕ́ the corn and others carry corn in blankets
to place beside the hole. When they have enough,
they begin to husk beside the hole (husking =
warluhórlo). They have selected good dry wood,
with which they line the sides and bottom of
pit . Going to get rock hot. Gets hot
quicker when on wood than when next to ground.
Soon as fire is started, sto Then stores placed on
bottom. Then fire built on top of stones.


Make fork out of crotched stick (nonóƙirlitca
kíjake). Used to keep arranging fire wood. Used
like stove poker. Rocks also arranged or rearranged
with this implement. When stones get red hot, can't
get near them. Therefore, sticks sometimes 10´ long.
Two or three men tend the fire, to get stones red hot.
Some are still husking. If rows on corn cob are
crooked (these called – tcokᵋtci | wohʌmp), they
                             women's flowing  |    field corn
are thrown to one side. This old custom, can't explain.
Has something to do with women's flow. Some
are hard, over ripe. These are grated into pail.
These called (wapoƙídi). Husks were woven
into containers (............) and the grated corn placed
therein. The name for this basket is now forgotten.
When husking all done, prepare squash and beans
also for the oven. Some green beans prepared.
When stones are red hot, clean out fire + charcoal.
This done with fork. Get all charcoal out that
is possible. (ũƙíniluk’o = take out charcoal).
Husks are kept handy beside edge of pit.
woƙĕ́ = hole (any pit in ground). Husks then
thrown in pit. It immediately begins to burn.
This fire extinguished by throwing in more husks.
Leader says how much to put in. No name. When
enough is placed in, leader stops helpers. This
was done in a great hurry. Squash, grated corn +
beans put in first. Then they place ears of corn


on top. When pit is filled with ears of corn, top
must be made level. Then husks placed on
top to cover whole contents of pit. Dirt then placed
on top and tamped down. Water must be
on hand. This gotten at time of preparing fire.
In exact center of the hole, dirt does not cover
husks; here they pour the water. One who understands,
who knows how much water should be used, tends
to this. He is probably the leader. He knows
how many stones it takes, how much of corn,
etc. is required, and how long it will take
to cook. When water is poured in, they hear
steam coming back. Then they cover hole
right away in order to keep steam in.
Niƙowaƙóna = small hole in center thus closed.
Everything is put in late in afternoon, about 4 o'clock.
Some one must know just when to have it all
done. If they did not pour enough water in
hole, the food would be burnt in spots‸.and all food would smell scorched. The
steam equalizes the heat. If too much water,
food would be raw, not finished cooking.
Helpers open pit next day, after it cooks all night.
Opened, according to leader, in morning. When opened,
stones are still hot. If necessary to stand on hot
stones, husks are first placed on them. Everything
taken out. A ‸sun shed was made (horá’azi) to


protect food from sun. Wawackú = taking
corn from cobs. Oyster shells used for this. Edge
of shell placed at one side of row and that row
scraped off. Women would help in this. After
corn all out of pit, divide the large ears from
small ears. Some are nearly too ripe; other small
and green. Watcatcác = real soft ones.
Waluskú suk siknik another name for these, after
they are cooked. Last name applies only to sweet
corn. Anyone who felt like it, could start
eating, informally. Tasted good, nice + sweet.
Some white people came to take photographs of
this. The small ones taste the best. The beans
+ squash usually, mostly saved for ‸family winter use,
can eat some if want to. Squash placed in hole.
Old time Indian squash (small, round, striped) =
witcãwãsĭ́́k. Smaller sized corn mostly saved
for winter feast. Larger sized for winter family
use. The grated corn spread + dry in sun. Placed
away for winter use. Híwarakʌnʌ = one name
for sweet corn. Means "dirty teeth".

Popcorn – wʌtatcóƙ
      When getting corn off cobs, call that wawasha
place leveled off on ground. Walrúpini = something
placed on ground (mats, cattails) for corn. New mats
used for this. Later these mats can be used for other
purposes. The corn spread out on these mats to


dry in sun. Every little while someone spreads
it out again, so that it dries evenly. On cloudy
days, spread in lodge, where fire would keep air
dry and prevent molding. When they are dry
they are stored away in pʌ̃hák (woven bags). These
made of basswood fiber string or nettle (cijá).
   By winter time, when ground is frosted, roots are
rotted so that nettles can be gathered. Bark
peeled off. Bow strings made out of this. No
good for hunting or war; for boys' bows. Dyed
with bark of walnut tree (black), boiled with
bark. This used also to color mats. Red dye
from blood root (pĕ́ƙicotci). Rattles were once
                    gourd rattle | red
dyed with this color. Yellow from a mud called ƙinútc.
From leaves petals (pale spotted touch-me-not = impatiens
biflora). Boil petals + put stuff to be dyed in with
them at same time. Fine ashes also boiled with this to
make the color set. Animal gall (písta) used for
yellow, too. Boiled with gourds.
    Bags of food stored for winter. Feast food kept
where women will never go near them. Bags of ‸feast food
generally piled next to the wall. Other food there
too. Women must be out of home before menstrual
flow actually begins and stay out til all over.
    Many ways of cooking sweet corn.
One called watacídi. One man + wife can do
this without help. Family affairs. Corn boiled in
pot first. Fresh corn used. Best thing is pit
cooked corn; tastes better that this way.


  Then corn is removed from cob and dried as before.
Divide the small corn from large corn in same way
and store former for feast use.
    Watcatácda corotc — ‸Full grown but not dry corn soaked in
  ash lie so as to remove shells. This is best
kind of corn. Then they Only ‸prelim. cooking done when
boiled with hardwood ashes. Then dried in sun +
stored. To be cooked over later.
    Wataƙóƙo — Build fire with dry hardwood
  and roast, on cob, on coals. Taken from cob,
sun dried and stored. Taste different from others.
    What was left over on stalk, and dried there,
  was taken off cob and re-dried in sun. This
kind called whahaƙí. | The husks of this ripe
  braided into long strings, in order that they might
be hung up. These used both for food and for
seeds. This kind of corn called wakísũ.
Braiding = hakísũ. Hung in sun to
thoroughly dry.
    Pit-stored corn — most any kind. Stored over
  winter. Pit lined with husks first. Opened in
    Wacukĕ́ = what they ground. Watacórotc
  = hominy made of dry corn. Could be made any
time of year.
    Red corn, dried, ‸taken off cob. sometimes boiled. Puffed up
  stored like popcorn and stored for winter use.
This called wacatátsʌtc.


This same red corn, when in [hurry ?], can be
roasted on cob on live coals. Then taken off cob
and ground. Make wadúc out of it. Mixed
with water and boiled quickly.
    Never had toothache before had flour. Lay
toothache to use of flour.
    Watcatcác ho hʌ̃ = Cooked corn + beans together.
       soft corn   | 
Green corn shaved from cob, and cobs well scraped,
boiled with cut up green beans in pod. Put
meat in with it, sometimes deer tallow or bear
    wakíha – mixed dry deer meat + corn. Cut
deer meat in thin pieces and hung up by fire or
in sun to dry. Smoked meat was considered best.
Any kind of dried corn boiled with this meat.
    Mahĭ́́ntc — milk weed leaves blossoms cooked, by
boiling, with most any meat. Blossom buds
gathered and dried for winter use.
                    (   ?   )  ‸green Leaves cut up and
    cooked with meat; boiled.
Wohʌmplok’ínĕ – dried fresh corn, dried on cob
    before fire and strung up on wrapping string.
Wapoƙíri – corn mush. Corn baked in pit,
taken from cob, dried, and cooked as mush. Beans,
when yellow ripe but still soft, were shelled from pod
and cooked with the corn in this dish.


This wapoƙilri was sometimes dried up after it
was cooked, and in this form it kept quite a while.


| Bear spirit – gave power of healing any sickness. This
given to man having dream of bear. Helpful in warfare.
This is black bear. Very useful spirit in that line.

     Grizzly bear man could change into bear without
aid of putting on bear skin. He might have a bear
skin which he wore in warfare, but not to assist
him to change to grizzly bear.

     Bear + porcupine of same family. Porcupine fat
sometime put in with bear fat, and called by
same name, one not distinguished form other.

258b (reformatted and corrected text)

There was a Winnebago village. There always had been a chief there. He had one son. This son had two dogs. One was a black dog and the other was spotted black and white. One day he went hunting with his wife and two dogs. The chief told him: "If anything happens to you, don't come home all alone. The people will sneer at you." They reached the place where they were headed for.

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

259 (reformatted and corrected text)

The chief's son loved his dogs very much. He never abused them but treated them well. It was in the fall of the year. He hunted steadily but had no success. About that time there was a light snow fall. Still he hunted all the time, but did not get anything. Then the food supply was getting very low. One night he woke up in the middle of the night and heard someone talking. he had never heard them before. It was the two dogs talking together. He could understand them. The black dog was older and larger than the other. He said, "Sųgijį, I couldn't help to find anything. You are younger than I. You should try to help find some game and so help our brother out. The spotted dog said, "Yes, I could find something, but our sister-in-law (man's wife) abused me one time and I do not feel able to help. I am sorry." "That may be all right to you, but on account of our older brother, who has treated us very good at all times, I think we should try to help and find some game," said the black dog. Spotted dog said, "Yes, I can do that very easily if he gives us the remainder of the supply of food. Then I can get some game."  When the man woke at daylight, he roused his wife and told her to cook what was left of the food supply. She did as she was told. When it was cooked, he

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

260 (reformatted and corrected text)

told her to put it in a certain dish. She did so and brought it to him. Then he cooled it by turning it with a spoon and gave it to the dogs. Then he talked to them. "Brothers, ever since I lived with you I have always treated you right, taken good care of you and raised you to live with me. What supplies we had are all gone. This is the last of it and I am giving it to you. I shall not eat any. I wish that you might go and find something to eat so that we might eat again. He then gave the food to them and they ate all of it. They went out there. The spotted one was gone immediately. Soon they heard him barking a short distance from camp. They had hunted at that place many times. It was a very large bear. This kind of bear has a double nest, part for the body and part for the head. They killed him right in the nest, but couldn't get him out, he was so large. So he called his wife to help. It was early in the morning. So she cooked some of the meat for their breakfast. Then they hunted again. He fed his dogs also. The spotted dog found another one. The chief's son also killed a deer. Then they began to find plenty of game, from that time on and had a good supply of meat.

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

261 (reformatted and corrected text)

They made a wopį́kĕrĕ. One time he woke again at midnight. Again he heard the dogs talking to each other. The black dog spoke to his younger brother. "There is a Fire (enemy) coming towards us. You can run faster than I can. I wish you would go and spy on them." "Yes, I can do that, but I would like to have something to eat before I go," said the other. So the an got up, built a fire, and told his wife to prepare something to eat. After eating the spotted dog started out. He went four nights journey. When he met the enemy leader, he heard him say that he was going after a man, his wife and two dogs. This he said to his men who had presented tobacco and asked where he was going. The dog returned and got home first before daylight. He told the man that he met the enemy four days away; they were coming after them. The man said to the spotted dog, "Take the news back to the village." the dog said, "First give me something to eat." This he did. The village was also four days journey away. The dog arrived there one

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

262 (reformatted and corrected text)

morning. They all knew that he had two dogs, and they were alarmed at the return of one only. They thought all had been killed but one dog. He went into the chief's house. The chief could not understand the dog. The dog came in a licked his hands and whined. There were certain people who understood dogs (šųk-hit’enąxgų). They went after an old lady who was one of these. She talked to the dog. Then she said, "These people want to know why you came home all alone, whether your brothers and sister have been killed by an enemy." The dog said, "I have been trying to tell them but they don't understand me. Hotocą́ (foreign enemy) are coming. They sent me home to tell you to go and help my brother out. He is waiting there to fight them. Give me something to eat and I shall go back and tell them. Follow my tracks and you can find where we are." So the chief sent two men, "callers," to tell all the people. They all got ready and started right away. They took extra moccasins along. The dog, finishing eating, started back. He got there the same day. The people got there in two days. The dog spied on the enemy for his brother, to tell just where they were. The black dog said, "His (enemy's) dream can't come

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

263 (reformatted and corrected text)

true. He hasn't as much power as I have. Then the reinforcements were given plenty of good from the hunters' supplies, and made ready to fight. There was some snow on the ground. The dog reported the enemy was due to arrive next morning. A great number of the enemy were approaching. They decided to set a trap for the enemy, to lie in wait for them. So they hid on either side of the approach to the camp. The dogs were to cry to signal when to begin, since they wouldn't be noticed. They were to cry from four places. This kind of trap was called waígᵋšą́. As soon as they all came into the wings of the trap, the dogs cried as instructed, then they all started shooting. They knew that they were trapped. The enemy were exterminated. They were tired from their long travel, while the friendly forces had had plenty of food and rest; so they were fresh for the fight. That is why they killed them easily. Then they started for home. They took all the meat and scalps home with them. From that time on, these dogs were very useful to this village. The older dog used to know when any enemy was coming, and the younger dog acted as a spy.

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

264a (reformatted and corrected text)

He was also smart in hunting. The older dogs when real old, said to the younger dog, "Brother, I intend to leave you and go to that place whence I am from. I urge you to stay with our brother the chief's son, to help him as long as you live. Whenever you are ready to go, you must come to my place." That older dog was the Wolf Spirit (Šųkcąk Wirúkana).

See, "The Dogs of the Chief's Son."

264b (reformatted and corrected text)

If you treated any dog fairly good, it was said in the old days that he would repay you by being useful. The dog, no matter what his breed, might become a good hunter, one who would hunt anything. A man, his wife, and one dog went out to hunt. One day's journey they traveled and set up their camp. The man's father had urged him not to take his wife away from the village. He started to hunt. After several days, one evening when the dog came home, the man knew that something was wrong. The dog was restless. So he went out with the dog. Then he talked to his dog. Then he understood what the dog said. The dog told him, "Some enemy are coming. They are getting ready to trap us now. Your father told us not to take my sister-in-law along. So she should go home right now, while we stay and fight." The leader is not as powerful as I am. I am stronger than he. They will not kill us. I

See, "The Dog Who Saved His Master."

265 (reformatted and corrected text)

will stay by you and help you out." It was just about dark, so that it was hard to see anybody. The dog said, "The woman should not carry anything so that she can run fast. When she is ready, tell her to catch hold of my tail and I can lead her up to a safe place without being seen by the enemy. Then she can go on to the village." The dog said, "When I turn to a certain place, face in a certain direction and paw the ground, she is to go in that direction and she will be safe." So they sent the woman home to take the news of their predicament to the people at home. When she started, the dog returned to the man. The dog said, "We must eat something now, as we must fight all day tomorrow without stopping for anything. The attack is generally made early in the morning. That is how it was this time. They heard them yell, and they came. The dog went to meet them. The man gave a war whoop and also advanced. The dog killed as many as the man. The woman got home at daylight. Her people got the warparty ready and started right away. They came up to the place of fighting in the afternoon. They saw the man and dog fighting the enemy. Many had been killed. With these reinforcements, more were killed. That is how dogs did sometimes.

See, "The Dog Who Saved His Master."

266a (reformatted and corrected text)

That is why the Indians always treated dogs well, so that they would help them out in an emergency.

See, "The Dog Who Saved His Master."

266b (reformatted and corrected text)

There was once a chief's son who took no interest in either war or hunting. He only liked to visit with people. He had a dog, a light colored, small dog. This dog he always treated well. Some young men were going out deer hunting. They said to each other that they would like to take along this young man, who was never interested in hunting. They thought he would make a good camp tender. So they invited him and he accepted. They hunted a few days, and then one day they saw men's tracks near their camp. Some wanted to go straight home without returning to camp. "If they kill this fellow, that's only one," they said. So they went straight home without telling the chief's son about it.

The chief's son was left alone with his dog. He waited for the hunters until it was very late, but they did not come. Then the dog spoke to him. He understood, although he had never heard him speak before. He told him what had happened and just what had been said. The dog said, "Don't worry, they won't kill us. Don't try to fight; I'll fight them all alone. I'll watch over you tonight. You can sleep.

See, "The Dog that became a Panther."

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But the man was afraid and could not sleep. The dog kept going out and coming in again. "It is almost daylight now," said the dog. "Do not go outside when you hear them cry out. Stay in the lodge. I am going out to fight when they come, but do not attempt to look at me." The dog came inside from time to time while the fight progressed. About noon, the fight still progressed. They used to give a war whoop once in a while while they fought, and the chief's son wondered about this. He thought he would like to look out and see what was happening, but the dog had told him not to look while he was fighting. So he peeked out of the lodge to see the dog fight. At the same time he looked at the dog he gave a low cry. Then the dog ran away from the enemy and came right in the lodge. They had shot him in the forepaw with an arrow. He told the man to pull it out. "They have me started now, so I'll finish it up," he said. "If you want to fight with them, you can follow me. They won't kill you," said the dog. When he went out he saw the dog. He looked like an angry lion. He was very angry and

See, "The Dog that became a Panther."

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killed them off faster than before. Then the man started fighting to help the dog. The dog said, "It is good of you to help me out. We will now exterminate them in a short time." Finally they killed them all. The dog said, "Now we must go home and we will take all the scalps home. Those who returned to the village have reported that we were both killed." So they took their scalps and went home. The dog kept his appearance of a lion. Finally they came to the village. All were much astonished. Those who had returned were told by their parents how wrong they had been. They had been afraid to fight, and they had deserted the chief's son and reported that he had been killed. The dog told his master, "It is not right for me to live with you now. I will stay here in the woods. I shall know if any of the enemy are coming and I shall always be here to help." After that, the lion would come and tell the chief's son when the enemy were coming. Then the chief's son would go out to meet them and fight them. So he became a brave man. Whenever he was

See, "The Dog that became a Panther."

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ready to hunt deer, the lion went with him. They killed much game on such occasions. So he became a great hunter.

See, "The Dog that became a Panther."

269b (reformatted and corrected text)

One time there was a gathering of all kinds of dogs. One of them said, "What shall we do when we get together?" Another said, "Let's play, how about a game?" So they chased each other, round and round they went. When they all came together, one, right in the center, let a fart. "Who did that?" said one. "I don't know who did it," said another. "Let's look and find out," said one, "We'll find out in a short time." From that time on, whenever you see two dogs, when they first meet, they smell each other to find out who did that. Every time you see dogs together, they do this. They are still looking for that one. They claim that they haven't found him yet.

See, "Why Dogs Sniff One Another."


     Since they quit fasting and hunting, can
no longer foretell weather. Still Some of clans
out of existence today. Most any spirit could
help one to foretell weather, but thunderbirds were
best. Any man with war bundle would be
a good weather prophet.
    Medicine men used to say, "If this sick man is
going to get well, tomorrow will be clear and calm.
People went far, when a man was sick, to find a
great medicine man. They gave him tobacco.
He placed some in the fire. If it did not burn,
it was a sign that the sick man would not
recover, and it was no use for the medicine man
to go down.
    Winnebago people sometimes solicited aid of
foreign medicine men — especially Winnebago
and Chippewa.
    Dream of thunderbird usually enable man,
if he was very spiritual, to bring rain.
    Members, men or women, could stop rain.
Used carrying strap of buckskin + string (hʌ̃ksák).
They sat on each side of fireplace and threw
the strap, rolled up like ball, back and forth
over fire (maybe four times). This "broke up the
clouds." Breaking clouds = maƙíwihonak-


If any one wanted a spring cleaned, would not
do it himself, but asked either a member of
waterspirit clan or wolf clan. Tobacco +
food given for this service. If one asked a
member of wolf band for drink, the request
would not be granted unless accompanied by
a gift, as of tobacco goods; not food or tobacco.
No reason for these things, just the custom.

     Bear band leader have sticks to mark
months. This peculiar duty of bear band
leader. This stick called (nãmʌ́ckotckotc).
Guide the months for coming of new born.
    Months record by phase of moon.
              ãhĕ́wilrokirli = new moon
              ãhĕ́wilrokisak = half moon
              kit’ákĕrlĕ — ¾ moon.
              ãhĕ́wilrokís — full moon.
              ãhĕ́wilrokit’ĕ́ — dark moon.
    Spring = wĕ́ná‘
    Summer = dók
    Autumn = tcaní‘
    Winter = maní‘


    Don't know how nãmáckotckotc was marked.
It was marked as soon as child was born. It was
then marked for every year. Leader would
start stick for each family. Then family would
keep track, or get leader to help. No presents for
this. This stick passed down to those appointed
to assume such duties. Never heard of this being
done in other clans.

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There was a boy named Masį́gᵋnika ("Brass"). A village was there. He lived with his grandmother, alone, at the edge of the village. He was about the same age as the chief's young son. Both boys were full of life. These two friends were smarter than the other boys with whom they played. There were two great warriors who were great friends. When their enemies would come, these two braves would change into grizzly bears, and kill all the enemy. That's why the people liked them, but they also feared them because they were grizzly bears. These two lived together in a long lodge where they had many wives. Whenever they saw nice young girls, they carried them off to their lodge, without ceremony. The people were afraid to interfere, for fear of being killed. So they let these two do this thing. When their enemies came, these two were very valuable to the village; that was another

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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reason why they permitted them to steal girls. The real chief did not have much power in this village, because the two bear-men had usurped much of the power. The village was situated at the mouth of a valley. There was the end of one of the valley's ridges flanking the village. These two bear-men fixed up a mound on top of this hill. When the enemy came, they went to this place. That is where they became grizzly bears. When the war was over, they repaired to this same place and assumed human shape again. The two boys always played together. Both were fine looking boys, it is said. One day they played with a group of boys right beside the home of the bear-men. They heard one say to the other, "Friend, let us seize these two boys. All say they are fine looking boys. Let's take them and see how they look." Then a messenger told them that these two brave men wanted the two boys to come into the house, that they might see them. So all the boys went in. They stood in the very center of the house. Then one of the men said, "I often hear you, when you play, speak of Brass or Brass's friend. Which are these two? I would like to see them." So the two boys were shoved to the

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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front. The same man said, "Say, my friend, the two boys are nice looking. Let us make tobacco bags out of them." The other said, "That is not right. As long as this world has been, we have never heard of making tobacco bags out of people. That is surely not right." "That is why we are going to have it," said the other, "because no one else ever had it so." So they decided to kill the two, after four days, to make tobacco bags out of them. So they let them go. So the caller notified the people of what the brave men were going to do to the boys. After four days, these two were to come to the mound on the hill about noon. So the people all heard. At evening, Brass went back to his grandmother. After eating supper, the old woman said, "My grandchild, I don't want you to be killed and made into a tobacco bag, so I want you to go away tonight; don't stay around here." So she prepared food, tobacco and small white beans for him, also one eagle feather and a yarn belt. "Go wherever you please, anywhere," she said. "Maybe some spirit will pity you and meet you. If they do, give them this tobacco, this belt or this eagle feather. These beans, drop one every so often as you go along.

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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Here is a lunch of pounded corn and maple sugar and also of pounded meats. You must go tonight. So he traveled all that night. Towards morning, he stopped. He decided to rest and sleep for a short while. He dropped a white bean every so often as he traveled. After sleeping for a little while, he got up again. It was still before sunrise. When the sun was just rising over the tops of the trees, he heard a bull buffalo. So he decided to go down to the buffalo. He traveled all day. All day he heard the sound of the buffalo, but he would not come up to it. Just before sunset he stopped again to stay overnight. Before he stopped, he made a pointed stick, like a meat fork, and pointed it in the direction from whence the noise of the buffalo came. Next morning he was up again before sunrise. Then he lunched. Then he started again, following the direction indicated by the stick. Again he heard the buffalo, when the sun reached the top of the trees. He kept on dropping the white beans. When evening came, he again prepared to rest overnight.

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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he again placed the stick point out the way. So he went on. The third night, he again placed the stick before sleeping. Each evening, he ate before going to sleep. Next morning, he did as before. Again he started. When he heard the buffalo, he went directly towards the sound. All day he traveled. At evening he did as before. This was the fourth night. Again he placed the stick. The next morning at daybreak he was up again. He lunched, then started out again. Always he kept dropping the beans. Again, as the sun topped the trees, he heard the buffalo. Each day the sound had grown louder. He thought that the sound was now right over the hill, just ahead of him. When he got to the top of the hill, there was another hill. The sound was louder. He thought sure that it had come from just over the second hill. When on the second hill, there was still a third hill. He thought sure the sound was beyond that one. So he climbed the third hill, the sound was louder, but it was behind a fourth hill. The ground shook with the noise, like an earthquake. When he got to the top of the fourth hill, he saw him. It

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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was a white buffalo. The buffalo was walking around in a circle. There was a little open space in the center of this ring. So he went down to the buffalo. When he came near, he saw that, although it was hard ground, the buffalo's feet sank into the earth up to his knees as he walked. So he came closer. Then the buffalo lay down on the ground. Then the boy took half of his tobacco. "Grandfather," he said, "I give you this tobacco. Pity me and bless me." Then he tied the yard belt about the buffalo's horns. The eagle feather he placed in the top-wool of the buffalo's head. "Thank you," said the buffalo. "You are not my grandson, you are my son, because the Creator made our world, no one has done thus for me before. So I thank you for it. This is good. I have never before even had my pipe filled up by anyone. So I have to use this tobacco as long as the world stands. What your grandmother told you, I heard, and it is so. That is why I made you come to me. That is why I shall bless you. All the different spirits, above and below, never heard of a tobacco bag made of a human. So I bless you throughout your life on this earth, my son. When you have a hard time, you can assume my form. Our Great Spirit Father gave me all kinds of

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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spirit power. You can be a great warleader anytime you choose. Also, you can doctor your own sick people. You will cure them. I give you power to acquire all manner of goods. So you will have a long life, until the days assigned man by our Great Father have run their full course. All will come out as I now promise you. You shall see. Then hunt up your friend. He did not know where you went. That is my friend's son, and I shall call him 'son' too. He is with us. Listen, I don't want to keep you here long." Then the boy heard a drum beating. "That is where you must go. That is my friend that I spoke of," he said. "You go that way, through the thick timber, until you come to a pleasant wooded country, where there is no underbrush. Then you will see a longhouse, standing east and west, with a door in the center of the south side. Go in there. That is my friend. He knows that you are coming. He is waiting for you." So the boy went as directed. Through the thick timber he went. When he arrived at the place where the big trees grow, and no small brush, then he got there. Then he saw the longhouse.

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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When he saw the door in the middle of the south wall, he went in. There were many met sitting around the floor of the house, smoking. As soon as he entered, four leaders he saw sitting in the center of the north wall. One of these said, "My son, sit opposite me." So he did. "My son, did you see my friend?" "Yes," said Brass. Before this, before he sat down, he gave the other half of his tobacco to this leader. "Thank you for this, my son," he said. "I am thankful for this. My own son went down there after tobacco, but he never brought any back to me. That is why I am thankful now. All these you see in this tent are from different places. These are not common men. Look well at us." So Brass looked about and saw that they were not men, but bears. "What you see is what we are inside. You can not always tell what a man is by his outer appearance," said the leader. "What my friend told you is so. No spirit above or below ever heard of a bag being made from a human. "Your boy friend could fight these two brave men single-handed, but since you left, he is crying around looking for you. He didn't know where you went." Then he noticed that the four leaders were colored

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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differently. The oldest, the speaker, was colored all red. "I am going to bless you," this one said. "We four are your fathers, and the others are your brothers. At anytime you wish, you can change to the color of any of us four. So we bless you. Our Great Father gave us power, and with this power I have authority to bless you. You shall live long, finish out the days assigned to man by the Great Father. You shall be able to doctor and cure the sick of your people. Also, you will be a great warrior, assuming the leadership as often as you choose. Also, people will load you with rich goods. These shall come easily to you. Besides this, anything that you see done in the house, you can do at will throughout your life in this world." Then they began to sing and dance again. They took from the ground wild turnips. They shook plums from dry trees. They pulled ceráp from the ground. Many wonderful things they did. With their powers was the boy blessed. Then they showed him how he could do these things. Then the leader rose, and said to those present, "I want you to tell me, who of you blessed these

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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men who now wish to make a tobacco bag from human skin? Who did this thing?" No one said anything. There was a small grizzly bear sitting by the door. He rose and said, "As long as I live, no matter how late the night, I never refuse to go, no matter how far, when I was wanted. I have done the best I could for you, whatever you commanded. So I thought that I had power to do whatever you do. That is the reason that I blessed these two men, but I did not tell them to make tobacco bags out of humans." Then he sat down. The leader then spoke. "From now on, you shall live on the surface. No more can you stay with us underground. Hereafter, when you see humans, you will become frightened. You will be afraid of them. Nor will you have power to bless anyone." So they sent him out. Then the leader said, "Say, my son, since you came away, your friend has been looking for you, but he has found where you are now. He is coming. You go to meet him. He will come through a small prairie. There you shall meet him." So he went out, passed

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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the big timber until, at its edge, he came to a place where some young red oak brush grew. Beyond this he saw a little long prairie. At the very end of it he saw a small bear coming. He knew this one was his friend. So he ran back and hid behind the red oak bushes. When the bear was in the middle of the prairie, he rose on his hind legs and ran toward his friend. Then, when close, he assumed his human shape again. Still Brass hid. He said, "My friend, I know that you are hiding there." So Brass got up laughing and met his friend. Then his friend said, "My friend, why didn't you tell me you were coming this way? I have looked for you everywhere, since you left. Then I learned that you came this way, and so I have come to find you. I can now fight those two great warriors single-handed. I could kill both of them. It will be better for us, your coming this way." He said to Brass, "Did our fathers bless you?" "Yes," said Brass. "How did they bless you?" he asked. "Did our father White Buffalo bless you?" "Yes," he said. "How did he bless you?" "Our father, White Buffalo, told me that I could

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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assume his shape at will. I would be a great warrior. I could lead the warparty at will. I could doctor and cure any of our people who were sick. He gave me long life. He promised me great riches in goods. That's all." "Good," said his friend. "What did my own father say to you?" "He said the same thing. He blessed me in the same way as the other. I could change to be like any of the four fathers." So he told of all their promises to him. Then Red Bear Boy laughed. "I am glad," he said. "I could kill these two single handed," he said, "but now that you have spiritual power, these two great warriors are nothing." So Red Bear's son said, "Say, my friend, our father White Buffalo, let's change to his shape. Maybe he was fooling you." They began to make hópkį, and soon there were two big white buffaloes standing there. Then they changed back to human form. Thus, Red Bear Boy said, "Say, my friend, let's try what our own father promised you." "Which one?" said Brass. "Let us both be red bears like my own father." So they imitated the

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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bear in voice and action, and changed into two great red bears. Then they assumed human shape again. "That's good," they said. "Now they can kill us and make tobacco bags of us, since we have such nice hair." Then they went back to the bears' lodge. There they stayed for awhile. There it became known that the chief's son was the leader's own son, sent [to earth] by the leader to acquire tobacco for him. "Say, my son," said the leader, "I don't want you to stay here with me for a long time. That is not right. I will send you back to your human home where you belong." So they went out from the lodge. Brass looked back there and saw the Indian lodge, as he had thought it to be, was a long hill running east and west. The door in the south wall was a hole in the ground. When they were ready to go, Red Bear Boy said, "Say, my friend, when would you like to have us arrive home?" Brass answered, "It took me four nights, but I would like to get back tonight about dark."

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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"That's a long time," said the other. "You know our boy friends at this village are lonesome for us. I thought you would say about noon, anyway. But it shall be as you say, whether we travel fast or slow, we will arrive at our village at dusk." Both of them had a bow and arrow. Red Bear's son said, "Let us play the shooting game." "All right," said Brass. So they shot arrows, one shooting first and the other trying to hit near the other's arrow. This they did as they traveled. While on the way, they came to a red oak bush. Red Bear Boy said, "See!" He pointed to where many people were coming. "Let us hide behind the bush, my friend," said Red Bear Boy. So this they did. They passed close by the bush. They, the boys, called out as they passed. The people stopped, and approached the bushes. Red Bear Boy asked, "What are you doing around here?" "We are the war band," they said. "We have been to fight an enemy." Then the boys saw that they had many scalps and some had prisoners. Red Bear Boy then asked, "Why are these tied up?" "That is what you call a 'captive'," said the warriors. "These we are taking home." "But you have many scalps; you should let these prisoners go," said the boy. "We would not do that," they said, "because

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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the spirits gave us these captives, and so we can't let them loose." Then the boy said, "I shall ask you four times to let these loose, since you have plenty of scalps, and if you do not let them loose when I have asked you four times, then I shall kill all of you." Many of the warriors had stopped to listen, and many were still coming. Those coming up, asked what had happened to stop the advance. "These two boys ask us to let go of the captives. If we do not, they say they will kill every one of us," said the first of the warparty. So they held a council. Some said, "These are but two boys," others said, "Maybe these are not two boys, maybe they are not what they seem. We had better do as they say." So they spoke to one another. Red Bear Boy said a second time, "Let these prisoners go, for you have plenty of scalps." Still others kept coming up from behind. Then someone came with a small boy. He enquired after the stop. It was told him. "Oh no," he said, "these are but two boys. I have worked hard to carry this captive a long way. I will not lose him now." "Let these prisoners go," said Red Bear Boy a third time. The man who had

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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the boy said, "I shall wait no longer; I am going on." So he went on. Some said, "Let us do what they say. We see nothing but boys, but they who speak so boldly must be something else." "For the last time," said Red Bear Boy, "I ask you to release these prisoners. If you do not do it, I shall kill you all." But they still talked about it and did nothing. "Let us slay these people," said Red Bear Boy to Brass. "Which form shall we assume? Let us become red bears." "All right," said Brass. Then they became two great red bears and began to kill the warriors. All but the captives they killed. Then they became shaped like boys again. Then they spoke to the captives, loosing them, "Now you can take their scalps, as they took those of your people. So they did, it is said. "That is one thing we did. That came out true, a promised by our fathers," said the boys. So on they traveled again. About dusk, they approached their village. Before they arrived home, Red Bear Boy said, "When we get home we will be presented with a white deerskin, tobacco, and a white dog." The chief's son went back to his own home. Brass went to the lodge of his grandmother. The old woman said, "Why did you come back this way? You can't fight with these men. You have never blackened your face. You have

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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learned nothing. No man can stand against these two, and you are but a boy." He answered, "Oh, that's nothing, they can't do anything. Don't you worry about it, grandmother, I can fight with those two all right." A Gray Grizzly Bear The next morning, the chief's son came to the house of Brass, "Let us go and play with the boys," he said. "They have been lonesome for us." So they went out. The people had noticed that these two were gone; they were surprised to see them back again, for they were to be killed, it was known. So some told the brave men that the two boys were returned. So the two men said, "After four days we will kill them. They are to come to the mound on the hill at that time." So the criers announced it to everyone in the village. So the boys hear this. Then some said, "Why did you come back? They are going to kill you." "Oh, they are not going to kill anybody," said the boys. So they continued to play around. When the old people heard this, they said, "Something is going to happen. These boys went

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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away for awhile, to return unafraid. Something will surely happen." This they kept saying, and the two boys played with the other boys every day. They did not seem to worry or to care for anything. The fourth day came. Towards noon, the two boys started up the hill. All the people watched them; they saw the lads going to their death. They did not seem to be worrying about anything. The people said to each other, "We are about to see something. A strange thing is about to happen." There one of the two brave men, the one who had advised against the action contemplated, said, "Well, my friend, maybe something is going to happen to us. Everything does not seem to be just right." The other said, "Have no fear of these boys. What could they do against us?" Then it was noon. The two warriors prepared themselves to go to the mound on the hill. The boys were playing around about the mound on the hill. Then the two warriors arrived there. Then the man began to imitate the actions of the grizzly bear, like they used to do. So they soon became two gray grizzly bears. The chief's son said, "Wait, men, I have to do something before you kill me. Just wait a moment for us." So they went behind

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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a small nearby knoll. All the people were watching them. "They have gone beyond that little knoll," they said. "Which shape shall we use," the boys said. "We will use our father, the red one; his shape will we take," said the chief's son. "All right," said the other. So they began to imitate the actions and cries of the bears. Soon they became two great red bears, larger, much larger, than the two grizzly bears. Much louder was their growling than that of the other two. The people were all greatly frightened. The old folks said, "Let us gather something to offer them. That is all that will save us." The two red bears came over the knoll and faced the two grizzly bears. When those had heard the growling of the boys, "Well, my friend," said he who had been opposed to the whole business, "I see something ahead of us. Trouble is coming." The other said, "That is all right, when enemies come, we get help to fight them. We will now get spirit help, and they will be powerless against us." So the red bears came to them. The chief's son said, "All right, you try to make tobacco bags out of us, we are now finer looking and will

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

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make better bags than we would as mere boys." Then he said, "But no, you were the ones who were going to kill us; so go ahead and do something to us now or I am going to grab you." The two brave men said, "Not so. You can have half the village and half of our wives. Let us be friends." "No," said the boy. "If you do not do something to us, I am going to jump on you now." So both the boys leaped on him and tore his body in two parts. Both of them they killed. Then they returned to the knoll where they had assumed their bear shapes. Then they became boy-shaped again. Then they went back to the longhouse of the two brave men. Many young women were in there. "Go back to your own families," they said to them. "Do not take anything with you. These things are unholy; we are going to destroy them all." So all the women returned to their own families. Then the boys called men to help burn the lodge. The two dead bears were first placed in the lodge. Then wood was gathered to add to the fire. Then all was burnt.

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

292a (reformatted and corrected text)

So the people notified the two boys that they had something to offer them. So they asked for one white dog. When this dog was killed, it was placed somewhere where there were no people around, and tobacco and buckskin placed with it. The chief's son said, "This was about to happen. That is why I came to you, to protect you. It will not happen again. If it does, I will come again." That is all.

See, "Brass and Red Bear Boy."

292b (reformatted and corrected text)

There was an Indian village. Ten brothers lived there. The youngest one used to blacken his face and fast right along. In those days the family all lived together — it was not separated. Another man was a grizzly bear man. He could turn into a spotted grizzly bear. People were all afraid of this man because of his changing into a grizzly bear at will. Whenever he saw a beautiful girl, he carried her off to his lodge. When people went on the buffalo hunt, when they killed the buffalo, he always took the fattest part of the animal for himself. This he did without asking. The youngest of the ten brothers was trying to get a good dream. One time the ten brothers went out on a buffalo hunt with others. The youngest went along. These were among the best hunters in the tribe. They often went hunting.

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

293 (reformatted and corrected text)

but they never brought home anything but poor meat. This was because the bear-man always took the good meat away before they brought it in. So it happened this time. The bear-man brought home the fat meat; the ten brothers got only this meat. When they arrived home with their meat, they cooked some. The oldest one, eating this, nearly choked to death because the meat was so lean and dry. In the morning, often breakfast, the younger brother said, "I shall go with you, but I do not like this giving all the fat meat to the bear-man, because my oldest brother nearly chokes to death on this dry meat." So they took the youngest brother with them. A long way they went from the village. So they hunted, and the ten brothers wanted to leave the youngest at the tent to take care of things there, but he said, "No, I want to go with you, so that I can bring back the very best meat that we get." "Don't say that," said his brothers. "How could you successfully fight this man? You talk two minds." The next morning, they hunted buffalo. They killed some good buffalo. The younger brother said, "Pick out the best meat for us. I will take some of it for you. Then the bear-man came along. The older

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

294 (reformatted and corrected text)

had said, "Don't take the best meat, because our brave man may come along. He will want it, so save it for him." "No, that's why I came along, to prevent him from taking all the best meat," said the younger brother. The oldest one said, "My youngest brother, I don't want to see you killed while I am yet alive. You have no weapons with which to fight this brave man."  "You will find out something," said the youngest. "I am in no danger, as this man cannot kill me. I know what I am doing. Don't worry about my being killed, my brother." "All right," said the oldest, and returned to the hunt. Then the bear-man came along. He said, "Well, I am thankful to you for taking care of all this best meat for me." Then he spoke to several of his wives, "Go ahead and take care of this meat." Then he grabbed hold of some of the meat. The boy then gave him a push, so that he fell over. "Don't do that," he said. The bear-man got up and tried to push the boy away, but he could not push him. "All right, young

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

295 (reformatted and corrected text)

man, you can keep this meat, but we will see about it," said the brave man. The youth then pushed him over again. "If you are going to do something, why not do it now?" he asked. "I came down here just on your account. I am going to make you stop treating the people as you have been treating them." The bear-man said, "You are nothing but a boy, and you are talking a great deal. You had better keep quiet. I am able to make you stop talking as you have been talking to me. The boy again pushed him away, and kicked him. "Do it, then, why don't you. You are a man and I am a boy. Why don't you do something except talk?" said the boy. The other searched for the best meat in some of the other buffalo that the boy and his brothers had killed. The boy said, "Don't touch any of that meat. Get away from here." The bear-man said, "All right, young body, I shall do as you say, but you will find out about it tomorrow morning." So he left. Then the boy took care of all the meat his brothers

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

296 (reformatted and corrected text)

had killed. "Let us gather all we have killed now and go home," he said. So they took all of the meat and went back to the camp. The night of the return, the bear-man went to his lodge, somewhat separated from the other lodges of the village. There he lived with his many wives. When the ten brothers came home, the young man sneaked in by the bear-man's lodge where were his many stolen wives, for he loved the most beautiful of the women. This you fellow knew that he had more power than the bear-man had. After awhile, the bear-man went to sleep. Then the youth entered and went to the woman. Then he awakened her. "I came for you," he said. "I want you to come to my lodge with me." She said, "It is well, I like you, but we are going to get killed." He said, "I have more power than this fellow. It is I that will kill him." She asked, "How will you do this?" "If you don't believe what I say, I shall kill you also," he said. "You seem sure, so I shall believe you," she said. "Then come with me, if you are willing," he said. So he went out, and she followed. He said, "We are going to run away." So they went outside the village

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

297 (reformatted and corrected text)

and ran round and round about it. All night they ran. She said to him, "It is about daylight. You said that we were going to run away from the village, but here we are. When do we start to run away? Morning is nearly here." At dawn, the lad went to his own lodge and walked right through, then they went to a small hill near the village. "Let's rest here," he said, "and wait for him." So they did. Then people began to waken. Said one, "One of the favorite wives of our best man is gone. Whoever did this thing, take her back to him." So they awakened the other nine brothers. Then they saw that their youngest brother was gone. "Maybe he did this," they said. The bear-man then began to imitate the actions and cries of a bear. People said to one another, "Our brave man is now getting angry. Whoever stole his wife is about to get killed." So the grizzly bear came out and trailed the fleeing youth and woman. Then the woman said, "Why do we not flee? He is following our trail. Soon he will find us." "Don't worry about it," said the lad. "He will find out all

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

298 (reformatted and corrected text)

about it when he comes here. We have been waiting for him." While the bear was trailing them, the youth said to the woman, "See if you can find a louse on my head." So she did, a big fat one, and he gave it to her and told her to save it. "This fellow is going to kill himself," said the lad, "I won't have to kill him." The people saw them sitting there on the hill, and they knew that the youth had done this thing. Finally, the bear went through the lodge of the ten brothers. Then he came directly to where the two awaited him. Then the spotted grizzly bear sat down. "Well boy," he said, "because you are not teaching the people right, I want you to stop this mistreatment. Now you are going to find out who I am." Then the lad began to imitate a bear. All the people watched them. Then the oldest of his ten brothers said to the others, "Well, we are going to die today, my brothers, because our youngest brother, whom we love, is about

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

299 (reformatted and corrected text)

to be killed. So let us get ready, and we will do what we can, anyway, even if it is but to die." "The next to the youngest one said, "It is no use in dressing. My younger brother knows what he is doing. I am not worrying about him at all." The oldest one said, "You are a coward, that is why you do not dress for war." "There is no use talking about it," said the next to youngest, "We'll find out soon now, anyway, what our brother can do." Then the youngest brother was seen to have turned into a large red bear. The spotted bear said to him, "Let us be friends, my brother. Half of the village will be yours and the other half mine. Half of my wives shall also be yours, and this, my favorite wife, shall be yours also. Then when our enemies come we will help one another and so we will save our people from them." "All right," said the red bear, "let it be so, but let's see what you can do with this." Then he threw

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."

300 (reformatted and corrected text)

the louse on the spotted bear. The bear began to scratch himself then. Then his great claws tore the flesh form his own body. Thus the lad said, "This is the third time I have come down to stop your evil work upon the people. Hereafter I shall keep a close watch on you. If you do this a fourth time, I shall kill you. See to it that you do not mistreat these people again." The spotted bear continued to tear at his own flesh. Finally, he seized his own heart and tore it form his body. So he died. The next to youngest brother had said to the oldest brother, "I am going to prepare something for our youngest brother," so he boiled a buffalo tongue. "When my brother comes back, I shall give him this, for I am sure he will return safely." So after the spotted bear was dead, the red bear said to the woman, "Go tell the wives of the man to return to their own homes. You, too, can return to your own people. It is not right that you should be my wife." That is all.

See, "The Spotted Grizzly Man."


(In this series of four stories – little priest is
supposed to have been the fourth reincarnation
of Red bear. It is not said who the spotted
grizzly was in this fourth episode, but he
did not live to do this work and so incur the punishment

301b (reformatted and corrected text)

When Migistéga had served his purpose, he told the people, "Now kill me, or I will do you great harm. For I will kill many of you if you do not kill me now. You will find me hard to kill. Thrust a stick through my heart and bury my feet deep. Then I shall not bother you in this generation." So they did. When they tried to kill him, two great fangs came out of his upper jaw.

See, "Migistéga's Death, Version 2."

302 (reformatted and corrected text)

The Chippewa and Sioux were the largest Indian tribes. There was a Chippewa chief whom the Winnebago called Wazų́kskaga ("White Fisher"). He was a brave man. He had a buffalo mark on the breast (painted or tattooed). When their enemies came, this was known by the motion of the buffalo. They could tell by these whether it was a small or a large band that was coming. Winter came, and they went out on a winter hunt. They moved away from the village where game would be more plentiful. Near the village was a lake with good timber and plenty of game, but this was so infested with enemies that all were afraid to camp there, but this chief decided to camp at this place, nevertheless. White Fisher had two daughters with their husbands. A single son he also had with him, and his wife completed the party. So they camped there. As soon as they arrived, the son and two brothers-in-law went hunting. While hunting, the old man built a fence of logs about the lodge. Soon the hunters returned with a deer. Then they prepared the evening meal. Then it was that they saw the buffalo moving sign.

See, "White Fisher."

303 (reformatted and corrected text)

"That tells me that a large band of enemy are very near," said the chief. Then he said to his children, "They are nearly here, many of them. So get plenty of water and cook all the meat. So this they did. Every vessel that would hold water was filled, and all the meat was cooked. Night came. The two sons-in-law went out to spy on the enemy. A scouting party of four enemy was advancing. There the two sons-in-law killed all of these four. They cut off the four heads and brought them to the old man. "I thank you for them, my sons-in-law. You have here a head for each of my legs and each of my arms. So I thank you." Then the chief's son went out to spy on the enemy. He surprised a scouting party of two. These he killed and brought their heads home to his father. A great many more were coming. The three young men went out and fought all night. They killed many of the enemy. Then they fought all the next day. One of the enemy had a buffalo headdress with the horns on it. He was a lively warrior and a smart fighter. He nearly got one of the chief's party. Just before noon, the buffalo man and the chief's

See, "White Fisher."

304 (reformatted and corrected text)

son met together in combat. He motioned to the chief's son that he would kill him about noon. So the chief's son was killed about noon. This news was brought to the chief. "My sons-in-law, bring me the body of my dead son," said the father. So they went out, one fighting on the outside and one staying on the inside. They decided that one should drive the enemy away while the other brought in the dead body. So one went after the enemy, the other lay a lariat on the dead man, then carried him in on his shoulder. So the body was brought to the chief. The chief was a great doctor, a Buffalo Spirit dreamer, it is said. So he began to doctor his son. All day the fight lasted. Then came the second night. The enemy noticed that one of the defenders was killed. About the middle of the night, the dead son's wounds closed and he came to life. "When day comes," said the chief's son, "I am going out to kill that man who killed me. I have more spirit power than he has now." They were still fighting. At dawn, he said to his brothers-in-law, "You have done well. If you want to, you can rest. I will do the fighting.

See, "White Fisher."

305 (reformatted and corrected text)

I shall not be killed anymore." So he went out and fought all day. Then he saw the buffalo-headed warrior. He motioned to him that he would be killed when the sun was half way to the zenith. This warrior's body was painted entirely red. When the time came, he killed this warrior. When he shot him, he was only wounded, but the son cut his head off while he still lived. The man then got up, without a head, and started running about. Finally, he fell down dead. As soon as he fell down, the enemy said, "Ku-u-u-u-u-u." Then the old man said, "Let us go down to stay where there is a hole caused by an overturned tree. Some of these enemy are sure to return to be avenged. So they all went into the hollow where the tree roots had been. Then the enemy returned, and the fighting was resumed. Then the old man said to his children, "My children, we are many. Maybe some of our people will bear and come to our aid." Sure enough, another Chippewa chief and his

See, "White Fisher."

306 (reformatted and corrected text)

band of Indians were on their way to the place of battle. The leader said to his people, "My spirit has told me that White Fisher is attacked by our enemy. That's where we are going." They were still fighting, the third day. In the woods they fought. When the three young men went to fight, one remained where the women and old men stood, while the others went behind the big log. One of them was standing by the log and saw many people coming beyond those engaged in the fight. The Chippewa warparty had arrived. The young men reported to the chief, "Our people are coming and there are many of them," he said. "They are our neighbors." So they killed all the enemy. There three young men had killed many of their enemies. When the fight was over, the warparty came to where White Fisher stood with his family. According to custom, they took everything that White Fisher had, all his belongings, even his weapon. This is called, hikųhĕ́. "Well, I thank you for this, White Fisher," said the leader, "I want you to go along with us with your family. And we will take care

See, "White Fisher."

307 (reformatted and corrected text)

of you all winter." He thanked him for holding the enemy until he had arrived. So they all went with the warparty. They took all the scalps with them. Each group took their own allotment of scalps. Back to the warparty's village they went. There they were camped in a large circle. "Come and eat," said the warleader, "you and your family. Don't bill up now, as you will eat often." So they ate at his house. Then they were invited to eat at another lodge. In that way they ate at several houses. After awhile, they saw a lodge in the exact center of the camp circle. They were notified that a place was being prepared for him and his family, where they could stay through the winter. "The lodge in the center belongs to you," they were told. "You can repair there whenever you wish." So White Fisher was taken to the centrally placed lodge. So they went in. it was well furnished with all manner of equipment and all manner of food and other supplies, everything any of them would need. Then one came and said, "Everything here, even the lodge, belongs to you. All you have to do is to

See, "White Fisher."

308 (reformatted and corrected text)

rest. Someone will be appointed to do all the work for you, to take care of everything." So they were cared for all winter. When they wanted fresh meat, it was given to them. Spring came. They told them, "Maybe your own people have been looking for you. We would like to care for you longer, but maybe you would like to go home. A hundred men will be furnished to carry all these things to your village." So all the supplies, lodge, dry meat, clothing and everything, were taken with White Fisher to his own village. So White Fisher came back to his own village, where he was chief. His people thought he had been killed, for spring saw everyone else returned but him. They were surprised to see him return with much supplies and scalps. They were very glad to see him.

That is all.

See, "White Fisher."


Song – (Little priest myth)
I'm coming
run away
am coming
(Record IXa)
4      he-e-oi
Song.   (Record IXb)
  (wakãtca)1(tciróhʌ̃ | akimanínĕ)2
  thunder bird  plenty tents | each side of
  Order of song: —
               2 – ae o hai e 
               2    o hai e oi


Explanation of War songs (friendship songs).
    These originated with Little Priest and his men.
  They had a organized a grizzly bear dance
(mãtcówaci). Little Priest was the leader.
Members either had dream of grizzly bear or
were appointed to band by Little Priest. This
organization was derived from the friendship dance 
(see former notes), and made up largely of those
participating in former dance. This dance is
now generally called Pow-wow. This group
were moved by government to Blue earth Co., called
Winnebago, Minnesota. That's where this dance
started. In those days, the hair was cut at the
sides and allowed to grow long in center. This
called ahó sĭtckelre. The hair was
carried on top of head, not braided, wound around
top of head. That's where name came ‸from helrúska
waci, the hair was untied and allowed to hang
down back. This they did before dancing.
    N.W. Sioux and 2 called it helrúska.
    Some others called it Omaha | dance. Winnebago
                                (people who live upstream)
  call this hiromã (direction from which they came)– or
against the direction of their coming). While preparing,
loosening hair, etc., the singers begin to sing four
songs. 1st is slow, 2nd faster, 3rd faster still, and
4th fast enough for dancing. They all began
to dance during fourth song. From there on,


the order was repeated a there were dancing
songs + rest periods. Finally came to stopping
place and had a feast. Animal with heads
were cooked. Heads put in different pots from rest
of animals. Before eating, 3 or 4 warriors
participated in dance: wohʌ´hawaci. These
dances imitated in pantomime the deeds of warriors
in battle. There were two of these songs. During
the second song, the helper who cooked the food
joined in the dance. Of t The three or four dancers
danced about the pot of meat (heads). The
helper took pieces of meat from this pot and
placed it in mouth of dancers, while the
after they had finished dancing.
helrúska hũk = chief dance leader. While
3 or 4 warriors danced, sisters, nieces, etc came
with blankets and placed them where these
warriors were to sit. These blankets were later
given away to old people unable to support selves.
Singers supposed to be warriors – sang of what
they ‸personally did in battle. Some of these songs have no
words, just refrains. Others are in the real language.
    Dance held in open place. No fireplace.
No sacrifice, no altar, a sociable dance.
    Drum a hollow log covered on both ends with
hides, not a water drum – helrúska leƙ harlopórlok
    No special dress.


  War songs: —
① Record XIV-a                    he-e-e-e-e-oi
    kake | walra na ‸ matco | sepelra
 weep | make    | grizzly bear | black
             ①      ②                    ③
kora                        "        = 1½
patcoka | wina        he-e-e-e-e-o’
   foreign | women            ⑤
  (you made them weep, patcoka women, black grizzly bear)
  1 — 1 — 1 — 1½ -   2
3 — 4 — 1 — 1½ — 2
                         final    5

② Record XIV-b                      lo he-e-e-e-e-oi
    himaníne               |  hitcakóro
  walk with                |   my friend
  tcanaka  | mojoakele
   all       |      on earth                lo he-e-e-e-e-o’
  You must walk with every living spirit above and below.
        (speaking of dream)


     4 times
   hinigéna haie-e-e-eo
I said to you
white cloud
  standing on
      you shall see them
    jenʌ́ka ƙakᵋlrĕ   
       don't weep any more ⑤ 
1 — = 4
       hai e e e oi

     Describes dream, some spirit told him four times not to
weep any more. Blessed him; he would get best of enemies.

hikí tcilralrĕ         wanaƙĕ́ tcilralrĕ
come, I run        ghost    | I run
        ①                        ②
      o hai e  
  cũgĕ́ wanacĕ            o hai e ‸ o hai e-e-oi  
   horse | take steal away     ④  
  refrain first – (long)    
            1 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4  
    cũgĕ́ used instead of  cũkátĕ to fit time.
       ↳Oto word for horse Winnebago  

314 (reformatted and corrected text)

When the Winnebago were living in Minnesota they received some horses from the government. Some didn't care for horses, but others were very anxious to get them. Old man James (Nąwą́hoka) had to take one, not a very good one. They used to have horse races. They found that this horse was a good racing horse. In a race he would beat them all. They used to have a U. S. Army fort there. There were some good running horses there. A lot was placed on a race, James' horse against the fastest fort horses, but James' horse won. So James did not want to dispose of his horse. Finally, the Winnebago were moved up into Crow Creek, Dakota Territory. James took his horse along. From there again they were moved to Winnebago, Nebraska. The horse went along with James. About that time, there were no settlers around there. It was all wild country. Someone finally stole the horse, some man from another tribe. They used to do this in those days. It was necessary to keep a good horse right in the teepee with you, unless you wanted it stolen. It was not permitted to out of the rope. To effect a truly brave deed, one could try to go inside the teepee and pull

See, "James’ Horse."

315 (reformatted and corrected text)

the stake out, steal the animal from under one's very nose. James tracked them part way, and then came back after his mą́wožu (arrow quiver). He followed the thief up. He didn't permit anyone to go with him. He tracked them over 300 miles into Kansas. Nįmáhahacira, they were the people who lived there. He went there before sunset. When he reached the top of a knoll, he saw at the foot of the hill a creek, a patch of woods, and some teepees there. Where he was it was all prairie. He found some hazel bushes there; here he hid all day. During the day two women came towards the creek. They stretched a deer hide in the process of tanning it. He watched them at work. Then one man came to them. He had on a blanket. Across the creek was a horse staked out all alone. He intended to get this horse in broad daylight. So he crawled on his knees through the tall grass towards the horse. He noticed that it was a good running horse. When he got to the stake, he pulled it out and coiled the rope as he crawled towards the horse. Then he jumped on the horse and away he went. He had had a dream of a ghost and so he could not be seen during broad daylight. So he composed this song.

See, "James’ Horse."


One of first (slow) songs. Maybe do any time, sung
slowly, since there are no words but a refrain.
 tci lroha.
   (lots of them)
  akí maninĕ
   thunder bird
  walk beside
    ai o hai e
o-hai e e e – o
1 – 2 – 3 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 3 – 5
A great many thunder birds walk beside me.

hani wokí’u
acquainting them
hai e e e e
    [...] one
hai e e e e o i
                 1 — 3 — 2 — 4 — 5 — 1 — 1 — 6
      final ends in "O" rather than "oi"
(They imitated the spirits of night + thunder birds)
{ maybe she represented the night spirits }
Yes: that is what it means.
           this is one = night spirits + thunder birds


  Explanation of Little priest had his wife with
    him. This song was composed by his followers
and has something to do with the fact that both
he and his wife were present at the fight.
  ⑦ Four beginning songs.
(a) ha e ye-ha yo-             ha-a-ye-o
      a hai e-e-e-e-oi
    (b)   Same elements.
Made mistakes in this one
last second part right
    (c) hai ya hai e-e e oi          e-heya-e-ha
    (d)   hai o he - o   e-e e e – oi

Names for foreign peoples differing from Radin: —
    hit’ewĕ́rĕcicik = any people with unknown language.
                 Applied to Norwegians.
    Kickapoo = hakdjánaji
    French = waƙopínikdjinik = genuine spirit people.


Omaha = Ómãhã (hĩrlomaha) - upstream (people)
Sioux = Cãhʌ̃´ - ?
Oto = Wadjokdjádja - don't keep time (while copulating)
Iowa = wáxotc – gray ones (covered with mud from swimming.)
Pawnee = paní – running nose (people)
Menomini = Kaƙi – crow Raven.
Fox = Wacĕrĕkĕ́‘ – red fox
Sauk = Zagí –
Potawatomi = Walrák?ĕ – (those who) [... of ... ?] (of [...]).
Ojibway= lrégatci – ?
Kickapoo = hakdjánaji – stand back
Osage = Walrác – scraping of grain (of deer hides in process
                     of tanning)
Whites in general = Waƙopínina – spirit (people)
                     or      walreník – working men.
French = Waƙopiniƙdjinik – genuine spirit people.
People with broken language (as Germans + Scandinavians) –
English – Zagánãc –       ?
Oneida – Nicákdjahatcirla –
           shore gravel | dwellers
       also Iroquois
Ottawa – hotáwa (not Winnebago word)
Winnebago – hotcʌ́nkʌlra – Big voice people.
Delaware – wapʌ́nʌƙ[...] – ?
           also stockbridge Indian.
Shawnee – cawáno – glad ones.
Kaw – Kãs –    ? 
Arapaho Patcóka – strange‸enemy Indians.


Blackfoot = sísep – black foot.
        (probably late)
Tonkaway – kilrutc – cannibals.
          (Their own name for themselves)


319b (reformatted and corrected text)

There used to be many Tonkaway. There was a big village, larger than any other tribe. The chief had one son and this son had three aunts, the chief's sisters. The chief's son didn't associate with those on the warpath, he always stayed by himself. The chief's son was urged by his father to do as the others did, to go on the warpath and so on. Finally, he consented to do so. He asked these aunts to make extra pairs of moccasins for him, and also clothing. He picked out eight horses and started on a westward journey all alone. He traveled for many days. He came to a river, a small dried up creek, forming a hollow. He left his horses there and went on on foot. Looking around, he saw three men on horseback on top of a hill. They came closer towards him. When they came, he saw that they were a man and two women. They began to put up a tent near where he was. He heard them talking, and understood them. While they were talking, he found out that they were a man, his wife and his sister. He was hiding so that they did not see

See, "Why the Tonkawa are Called 'Cannibals'."

320 (reformatted and corrected text)

him. Towards evening he sneaked in and went to the lone woman. He asked her to copulate with him. She got up and told her brother, "There is a man who has come here who speaks out language and wants to make me his wife." "That will be all right, if you want to do so," said her brother. The man stayed there and did not take up his journey further. In the morning he told his new wife, "I have some horses with me. You take them and give them to your brother." But his brother-in-law was afraid to go alone, for he thought the newly arrived man might have a war party waiting for him. His sister said, "You go and we will watch for you." So he went and got the horses. He thanked him for the eight horses. Then he said, "I came here to hunt buffalo. Let's go and hunt now." So they went out and killed some buffalo. Every day they shot buffalo. One day they stayed in camp. The man said some of his people were coming, as previously arranged. "They are bad people," said the man, "and they might try to harm you, so I will stay with you." This he said because the chief's son had killed most of the buffalo. Towards evening these people came with some extra horses. When

See, "Why the Tonkawa are Called 'Cannibals'."

321 (reformatted and corrected text)

they arrived, some of them tried to kill him. His brother-in-law was also a chief's son. In the morning they packed up their meat and started back towards the village. Always the man's wife's brother protected this man. So they all went home. When they arrived there, some again tried to kill the young man, but the woman's brother always defended and protected him. He explained to them that this young man had killed nearly all the buffalo that had been brought back; they should not kill him, therefore. Then the woman's brother gave the young man some horses; in return for his good hunting. The young man was not only a good hunter, he was a good warrior and fought valiantly whenever enemies attacked. The chief said to his son, "I am getting old. You will have control of the village from now on. But he said, "Father, I'd like to say something to you. We have been greatly helped by my brother-in-law. I would like to pass the chieftainship to him and let him have control of the village instead of me." They had become great friends, hunting and fighting side by side. This young man had a baby by this time. The old chief said to the mother, "Daughter, my

See, "Why the Tonkawa are Called 'Cannibals'."

322 (reformatted and corrected text)

son-in-law came from some place. His people must be worrying about him all this time. You ought to go there and visit his folks." She asked her husband about it. "Yes," he said, "we could go to visit my family if you want to." The brother-in-law said, "I'll go with you." So they gathered up some horses and started out with their wives for the other village. They reached the village. His parents were mourning, for they thought he was dead. Then he told his people of how some tried to kill him, but he had been protected by his brother-in-law. So he had returned safely. The horses were distributed among the young man's relatives. Then these friends were ever together. They were great buffalo hunters and conducted themselves with great valor in protecting the village against the enemy. The old chief said to his son, "I am getting old, I shall pass over the control of the village to you." But the young man said, "No, I want to say one thing to you, father, in regard to this. My brother-in-law has come to us and has been of great help both in hunting and warfare. I wish to do to him as he did to me. His father appointed him to be chief of the village, but he passed the control over to me, where I am now chief. And I would like to pass control over to him so that he will be chief of our village." So the old man

See, "Why the Tonkawa are Called 'Cannibals'."

323 (reformatted and corrected text)

said, "That is yours, so I have nothing to say." So his brother-in-law was made chief. Then they wanted to go back to the other place. So presents were exchanged. There many horses were given to the strange chief to take home with him. So they traveled back and forth, sometimes in the western village and sometimes in the eastern village. Finally, the two villages came together, and were set up on opposite sides of a river. It was the eastern village that moved over near the western village. So they helped each other defeat each the enemies of the other. After awhile, some of the children of the eastern village disappeared, and no one could find out what had happened to them. So one time, they found part of one of the children's fingers. Some said, "Maybe these west village people at them up. They should be punished some way." Then some of the west villagers went to get foreign help to clean out all of the east village. So many tribes came to help, and, united, they tried to kill all of the east villagers. So they went towards the south. Only a few escaped. They met some soldiers, and they joined that party. The men folk went with the soldiers, and the women and children went on into Texas where there were no

See, "Why the Tonkawa are Called 'Cannibals'."

324 (reformatted and corrected text)

Indians and they would be safe. After awhile, the men returned to their women folk, but they had a hard time, as there was little or no game there. They used to eat a kind of turtle (mątéhi), a "small prairie turtle." They were like these little turtles, only these were about one foot high. That is all the meat that they ate. In 188–, about, they were brought down to Oklahoma. That is why they were called kiruc [cannibals]. Postscript. The Tongaway, in the first place, used peyote as a war medicine. Frank Mason said, "They used to use it to cure the sick also. The ground peyote was placed in a turtle shell, and mixed with water. The doctor then could look in the liquid and tell what ailed the patient." In 1886, John's brother visited Oklahoma. At that time only the Tongaway, of all the Indians there, used the peyote. The peyote cult was not yet in being.

See, "Why the Tonkawa are Called 'Cannibals'."


broke beyond repair
      means - "confession" "a confessor."
      Anything difficult to do.
cukƙĕ́tĕ } wild horse (couldn't touch it)
      incomprehensible save thru medicine
        Then said to be wacĭ́́c.
  Oto pun on peyote and –
úta Oto
    Horse – this medicine peyote (pĩúta)

325b (reformatted and corrected text)

Henry Harris had two girls. One died when 5 or 6 years old. She was suffering and wanted medicine, so he gave her peyote. When it worked, she wanted to talk to her mother. "I am going to leave you. An old lady has come after me. Four angels have come after me. I am going to a good place. This is my last chance to talk to you. Try and stay with this peyote. This is God's way. I know you love me deep in your heart. Your heart will be in the Kingdom of Heaven. Remember this that I told you. On this earth, there are lots of temptations going on, but you will not have long to stay here. Try to do your best. That is all."Then she crossed her arms across

See, "The Death of Henry Harris’ Daughter."

326a (reformatted and corrected text)

her breast and was gone.

See, "The Death of Henry Harris’ Daughter."

326b (reformatted and corrected text)

A Ponca Indian, White Shirt, was a Nebraska or North Dakota Indian. About 15 years ago, we went over there to introduce peyote. John Rave and some others went along. We raised some money for the food. White shirt had been on the warpath many times. The meeting was held one Saturday night. He was between 70 and 80 years old. Both he and his wife took the medicine. Then they were singing. In the morning, when daylight came, he said he wanted to say something, this old man. So he said, "Well, brother, I thank you for bringing to us this great thing of which we did not know before. I want to thank you for bringing us this great thing. Many times have I been on the warpath. I was conceded to be a brave man. So tonight, I found that in this I was wrong. I have a granddaughter who died not very long ago. Then I saw her tonight, with the angels. She had a white dress and a bright face. So I worry a great deal about my grandchild.

See, "White Shirt."

327 (reformatted and corrected text)

Then I found out that we didn't take good care of her. God could take better care of her than we could. So he took her away from us. She showed me the good way towards our Great Father in heaven. So new light came into my mind, and I have to live a new life hereafter. I told her, "My wife, we must do just as she said, so that we shall someday see our grandchild in that good place. Because that is the only way we shall be able to see our grandchild again. So what I have used, the warclub and things like that, I shall throw away. We will not need them again because we are to start out on a new life." I never knew of this thing until you brought it to us. That is what this medicine showed me through the will of our Great Father. My wife feels the same way. So we give up ourselves to the Great Father. So remember us in your prayers. So I want you to stay another night. I will provide a whole beef for the food." He was a chief as well as a brave. Thus he confessed himself and asked that he and his wife be baptized.

See, "White Shirt."

328a (reformatted and corrected text)

He could only speak the Indian language. That is all.

See, "White Shirt."

328b (reformatted and corrected text)

At Clinton, Oklahoma, an Arapaho girl lived. Her father and mother were both peyote people. She was the only child. They had some land including a town lot and money in the bank. Before she was of age, both her parents died. Finally, she was of an adult age. Then she got married. She treated her husband nice in every way. She bought a new home for them. Before long, however, the man died. So she lost her husband. She had property and money, so she got along all right, but she had a "low mind" because all her relations were dead. Once she saw the peyote paraphernalia which her parents had used. When she saw these things, she felt sorry, because she had not followed the teachings of her parents. These things had not been used for a long time. So she decided to have a meeting. So she did not want to spend the money in the bank, and she went

See, "The Arapaho Girl."

329 (reformatted and corrected text)

to town to get work, so that she could buy food for the meeting. So she found work in town. The money she saved until she should get enough for her purposes. Finally, she had enough. When she got home, she used a team for gathering wood to be used at the meeting. Everything was gotten ready. The tent was erected. Somebody was notified to lead the meeting. When all was ready, the people were assembled. They came over about noon and had both dinner and supper. She did all the work herself. When they were ready to enter the tent, the leader led them in. The leader asked her if she wanted to say something. She got up and said, "My brothers, you know that my father and mother were peyote people. One day I saw all the things that had not been used for a long time. I thought I would call a meeting so that they might be used again. So I have worked hard to get that which was necessary, and now all is ready. So I have called you. I have thought like this, I would notify you people, brothers and sisters. You know, my parents, when alive, treated me nice in every way. Since I was their only child. When I was grown, I married a man, and his treatment of me was like

See, "The Arapaho Girl."

330a (reformatted and corrected text)

that of my parents. Soon I lost him, so I thought, our Great Father wanted me to live alone as I am, so I ask you, brothers, pity me, and do not ask for me. Try to help me out. I want to remain single, just the way I am, because that is the way God wishes me to remain. So pray for me, I ask you." So they had a meeting. She composed a peyote song that night.  That is all.

See, "The Arapaho Girl."

330b (reformatted and corrected text)

I started it after me and my first wife had parted. I had a boy about twelve years old at the time of the split up. My uncle said, "Go away somewhere, or else your wife will treat you badly. Go somewhere, because I don't like you to be so treated." So I placed the boy in a government school and went to Oklahoma. I started eating peyote the same year as John Rave with an Oto Indian. One time, around February or March, this uncle died. About the same time, a brother also died. I had bad feelings in my mind because of these deaths. One time I ate peyote with the Tongaway. John Sherwin (?), a Tongaway,

See, "A Peyote Story."

331 (reformatted and corrected text)

was there. He gave me forty large peyote buttons. He said, "Whenever you have hard times or bad feelings, brother, take some of these. They will help you." But I did not believe this. One time I went over again to the Oto Indians. I got there about ten o'clock at night. I had to travel two minutes from town after getting off the train. "I went to stay with Dad Jones. When I got there, white people all told us that all the Oto had gone over to the peyote meeting with the Pawnee, so I found no one at home. I built a fire and slept beside it outside. Others had told me that if I ate this medicine, it would make me crazy. They said it would make me see big snakes and animals. That is what they had told me. Charlie Davis, however, used to say, "Whenever, my brother, you have hard times, you should pray to Christ. He will help you." Peyote Buttons So I went back to the Tongaway Indians. Early in the morning, I awoke, just before daylight. Then I began to eat the medicine. First I ate eight of them. The train was due in Red Rock about ten o'clock. I got to the town pretty early. I decided to go to the next station and wait for the train. When I got there, it was still early. As I traveled,

See, "A Peyote Story."

332 (reformatted and corrected text)

I still ate medicine. So I went farther on. Two or three miles farther on there was a dry creek. I stood there by the bridge, and I saw lots of wild gourds growing by the track. I picked some of those gourds and, cutting them open, took the seeds out. Some of them broke, but I got all the seeds out of one without breaking it. Then I cut a handle out of a young cottonwood tree. I made "seeds" out of sandstone. Still I ate the medicine. I didn't know my peyote songs, but I shook the gourd. Then I saw some rocks about 300-400 yards from the track. I went over there. It was sandstone, rather flat on top. This was wild country on 101 Ranch. I was thinking about the stories I had heard about seeing big snakes and animals. I wanted to see if it was so. So I decided to stay over night at this big rock. So I stayed awake all night at this rock, but I did not see anything. Next morning, I took the train for home. When I got home, I had previously sent for the money from my people, and a $60 check was waiting. So I went to the Pawnee meeting with that money.

See, "A Peyote Story."

333a (reformatted and corrected text)

The Oto, Sauk and Iowa were also at this Pawnee meeting. Tom Morgan was a leader. He had long hair. He was dressed only in leggings and had white clay all over his breast. His hair was hanging loose. I stayed there about a week. All summer I traveled around amongst these Indians, whenever they had a peyote meeting. After that, I returned to my country and got my boy. I got a carpenter job in Oklahoma, and every winter I went there. I put my boy in school there.

See, "A Peyote Story."

333b (reformatted and corrected text)

John William (Tongaway) used to tell John [Bear] stories when he first visited Oklahoma. He said, "We are not many people, my people: many died when we first came. The only medicine we used was peyote, and we were all out of it, and there was no way to go after it at that time. So I went after some over in Texas. There was no railroad then. I took a mule to ride, and four grain sacks. It took a long time to make the trip. Whenever I stopped overnight, I placed the mule at one place and then I slept at another place away from the mule. That is the way I did. When I got to Texas, I stood

See, "A Peyote Vision."

334 (reformatted and corrected text)

on a small hill and looked about. I saw one little peyote. That was all. So I got a knife, cut it and ate it. After eating it I sat down, rolled a cigarette and prayed. I prayed so that I might find peyote. I prayed for help. Then I looked and saw one more peyote plant near where I stood. So I cut that and ate it again. After awhile, I saw quite a lot of it growing right where I stood. It had not been there before. So I stayed there quite awhile, picking and drying peyote. Some I dried in the sun and some by the fire. I got enough to fill the four grain sacks. Two sacks were placed behind and one on either side of the mule. I rode the mule besides. So I went home. After awhile, I came to a lone tree standing in the prairie. It was a hot day. When I arrived at the tree, I removed the load from the mule to let it rest, and I stood under the branches of the tree. Then I lay down in the shade. Pretty soon I had something above me. I thought that it was a big bird coming to me. When it came, it sat by the tree, that bird. It spoke to me. It said, 'You have peyote. I want you to use my tail and wing feathers with this

See, "A Peyote Vision."

335a (reformatted and corrected text)

peyote. When you get home, and someone is sick, I want you to use a fan made from my feathers. That will cure the sickness.' So I killed the bird and skinned it. I took the skin home with me. All night I stayed by the tree. When I got home, I brought my people lots of peyote medicine. At that time no other Indians but us were using it. This is the fan made of those feathers. I never gave the peyote to any other tribe. After that, our sick people got well; not so many of them died."

See, "A Peyote Vision."


Informants –

    "No good old informants in Wolf Clan. A
          few Wolf Clan members in Nebraska.
          The oldest is Richard Rave (peyote man)
          about 45 year old.


  Good Bear, Winnebago, Wisconsin.
    Friendship, Wisconsin.
(Best Informant)
  ——— Mike (Mʌ́nkstakʌ = white breast).
    8 or 10 min. from Portage.
Know all about S. Wisconsin old ways.
  There is a book, by white man, about 70 yrs old.,
    when coming Baraboo River, 1st house on
left hand side. All about Indian history
of district.

Bear clan
  ............... – La Crosse – old man.
    no children.
  James Swan – 10 mi S. of Black River.
Mãnápĭda – Wittenburg.
    no children.    
  Bear Chief (three brothers) – oldest live at Trempealeau:
Mrs Miner – near Portage
    3 girls + some boys, all grown.
  Mat. Little john – old man – at Martha
    1 boy 1 girl, grown
  Standing Warrior ——————   "
    no children.
  Little Crow -  – Informant's Uncle – Iowa.
      Leonard Walker – Wis. Rapids, from Nebraska.
  John Bear — (has ‸paternal grandchildren in Oklahoma)
      Mapĕ́silrelrika – Wyville, Watoma.
  Albert Walker – Win. Nebraska.
    Hũtskáka (white bear)  
  Frank White –                            "  


Informant's nephews -
William Bird ——
Solomon Bird –—
    Big Bear
    Several boys of this name —     "
      (2 or 3)    
  Red Rave
Harry Rave

brothers to John Rave
  (John Rave = bear clan)
  James Seymore

  Arthur Brown

  ——— Brown
(Arthur's brother) ——————   "
  Turner Rave (son of oldest bro. of John Rave)
  Peter Rave

  Charlie English
         1 boy

  Albert Little John

Friendship, Wisconsin
      Mrs. Decorah ——— Wisconsin.  ?  
Mr. Lincoln  ————————    Nebraska.  
    1 daughter  
    (had warbundle but disposed of it)  
  (John Rave once had warbundle)  
    (There is a bear bundle at Black River.)

Tcékahĕpga ———— Black River, Wis.
  White Breast ———    Portage.
  John Clay ————    Nebraska
  Jesse Clay ————          "
  Jimmy Clay ————         "
  Mrs. Richard Rave (nee Clay) – "  
  Wihánika (Al. Little John's sister) — Wisconsin Rapids


Turner Rave has sister married to white man.
  Mrs. Silas Longtail (aunt of Brown boys) Nebraska
——— Seymore (brother to James) Trempealeau, Wis.
Mrs. Howard McKee (sister to James Seymore). Nebraska
Mrs. Charlie Smith (half sister =         "              ) Wis. Rapids.
(... Ĩhákalaga – pat aunt to Big Bear – Nebraska