The Race for the Chief's Daughter (§1 of the Redhorn Cycle)
(115) Long ago ten brothers lived together in a lodge. Of these ten the youngest one always stayed at home. His older brothers loved him very much. While he stayed at home, they went hunting bear and deer. They would always return about sundown. One morning, when the older brothers were still at home, a person entered the lodge. He had a gourd hanging from his belt which rattled as he walked. "Kunu (oldest brother)," he said, "at last I have come upon you. The chief's daughter is going to be married and whoever wins the race shall marry her." Kunu answered "All right." When they were ready to start, the brothers said, "Younger brother, you must stay at home."
And so they set off. When they approached the place where they were to race, they were greeted with whoops of welcome and they answered with whoops. The people were saying, "Kunu has come and the one at whom Kunu used to throw deer lungs, his youngest brother, he has also come along." So Kunu looked behind him and, sure enough, there was his little brother following, wearing an untanned deerskin blanket turned inside out. The fur was on the outside. "See here," Kunu said to his youngest brother, "I told you not to come." He was ashamed of him for he, Kunu, was proud of his success with women. But the other brothers said, "That's all right; he can look after our things."
When they got to the appointed place the people said, "Ho! Kunu, it is only (116) for you they are still waiting." The chief's daughter, for whom the race was to be run, was sitting on the platform. All those properly called spirits were present: the Thunderbirds, the Night-spirits, the Deer, the Bears and all the birds of the air.
Turtle was now seen moving across the valley. "Come," they said, "Let us go after Turtle. He is just across the valley and he usually makes trouble and causes scandal." So away they ran in pursuit of him. Thus the race started. When they came to the top of the hill, there he was on the next hill shaking his sacred pipe. When they arrived at the hill on which he had first been seen, he was just going over the next one. When they got there he was going over the third hill and when they got there he was nearing the fourth hill. Then said the runners, "Turtle is very tricky. Someone had better go over there and watch him." When they got there they found a small red turtle hiding. They stamped upon him and thrust him into the earth and went on.
They saw the youngest brother running after them and taking part in the race. "He-who-gets-hit-with-deer-lungs is about to do something. Look at him," the spectators called out and all laughed at him. But on he went. First he passed Kunu, his oldest brother and as he passed him, the latter exclaimed, "Little brother, I am no good. If you are good, try with all your strength to win." So on, the youngest brother went and he came to the second oldest brother who repeated what Kunu had said. Thus he kept on passing them, one after the other. They were running around the rim of the world. Their goal was the place where the sun sets, the west. To that place the youngest brother was pointing.
On he went till he came in sight of another group of runners. They were Black Hawk, Hummingbird, and Eagle and two of his other brothers. When he saw that he could not get any closer to them, he took one of his arrows and shot in their direction. It alit beside the runners. He had turned himself into the arrow. His brothers said, "Little brother, try with all your strength!" Again, he shot one of his arrows and he went way past Black Hawk and his group. From there on he ran as hard as he could, leaving them farther and farther behind. When he came in sight of the goal, he saw Turtle walking in the middle of the valley. The spectators all shouted, "He-who-gets-hit-with-deer-lungs is coming! He must have turned back!" Then he passed Turtle. Finally he passed the last group of runners.
"Who won the race?" everyone asked. "Well, the one who won the race has just come in," was the answer. Then Turtle said, "Kunu's little brother followed me in pretty close. I am getting old, I fear." "Say, Turtle, you always cause disputes. Kunu's brother won the race," shouted the spectators.
Turtle, however, did not listen and addressing one of his brothers, said, "Bring down your sister-in-law," i.e. the chief's daughter, for whose hand the race was run. So Oval-turtle climbed the platform and said, "Sister-in-law, come down." But she refused. Thereupon Turtle himself went up, took her by the wrist, dragged her down and took her home. The sister of the chief's wife cried but it was of no avail. Just then, however, Kunu returned and the (117) people said to him, "Kunu, your little brother won the race but Turtle has taken the chief's daughter home by force." Kunu answered, "All right. I always longed to get hold of that man!" Thus he spoke and took hold of his bald-headed warclub. "Where does he live?" he asked. They showed him and he set off.
When he came in, Turtle was still holding the chief's daughter by the wrist. She was crying. "Turtle," said Kunu, "I have heard a good deal about you and I just long to see you. My little brother won the race but yet, it is said, you took the chief's daughter. So I have come after her." Then Turtle said, "It is true that your brother followed me in very close." Kunu took hold of the chief's daughter by the other wrist but Turtle would not let her go. Then he struck him with his warclub which made a tremendous noise. There, on his four legs, Turtle stood wheezing. When Kunu finally got outside, Turtle called out, "I want to make friends with your brother who won the race and that is why I am giving you this woman, not because I am afraid of you."
Kunu returned home with the chief's daughter. However his little brother said, "I am not old enough to marry. You had better marry her." Then he offered her to the next youngest brother. But this one too said, "I also am not old enough to marry." So he offered her to the brother next to him. And thus they passed her on until she was finally offered to Kunu. And he said, "All right," thanked them, and married her.
Now, the next morning, the older brothers all went out hunting. Kunu was the first one to return home with a deer on his back. He put his bow and arrows next to the lodge and laid a furless skin in the middle of the lodge. He put his deer-pack down and dressed it. The lungs he laid aside and went on with his task. Then his wife picked them up and threw them at Kunu's little brother, striking him in the breast. She laughed. But Kunu got angry and said, "Why did you do that?" "Well," she answered, "I understand that this is what you always do to him and that is the reason why they called him by that name. That is why I am doing it." "No one ever did that to him before," said Kunu. "Once I told him to fast and he refused so I threw a deer lung at him and that is the reason why they called him by that name but no one ever hit him with a deer lung."
By this time the other brothers had returned and the youngest brother told them, "My sister-in-law hit me with a deer lung." And they said to her, "How did it happen? Did you not see him?" "No, I did not," said the woman.
Now the little brother stood up and said, "Those in the heavens who created me did not call me by this name, He-who-is-hit-with-deer-lungs. They called me He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings." With that he spat upon his hands and began fingering his ears. And as he did this, little faces suddenly appeared on his ears, laughing, winking and sticking out their tongues. Then he spoke again, "Those on earth, when they speak of me, call me Red Horn." With this he spat upon his hands, and drew them over his hair which then became very long and red. Now his brothers became fonder than ever of him and gathered around him laughing. The next oldest brother said to him, "What (118) a wonderful thing you possess." "Come sit next to me," the little brother said to him. Then he spat upon his hands again and passed them over the head of his older brother and the latter's hair became yellow on one side. Then the third brother told his little brother how much he admired him and the latter said, "Come sit next to me." Then he again spat upon his hands and passed them over his brother's head and his hair became very long. Then the little brother said, "This is no ordinary power and I will use no more of it for you."1
Commentary. "deer lungs" — it was believed that eating deer lungs would bestow upon one great fleetness of foot. Because Kunu thought that Redhorn was not going to get help from the spirits because he refused to fast, he did the next best thing: he gave him deer lungs to supply the kind of strength that he would need in a race. It may be added that Redhorn is also the personification of the arrow, and the arrow often strikes the deer's lungs; but more relevant is the fact that the arrow has great swiftness, so it is as if it had fed upon deer lungs.
"a small red turtle" — Radin's note here reads, "That is, he had placed turtles all along the area of the race."
"he had turned himself into the arrow" — Redhorn is strongly associated with directionality and its symbol, the arrow. In this story he even assumes the form of an arrow. This is one of the reasons why Redhorn is said to be the Chief of the Heroka, a race of diminutive beings whose symbol is the bow and arrow, and who govern powers related to the hunt. The arrow can also represent the directionality of time as well as space, a role agreeable to it from the homonym mą, which in the Hočąk language means both 'arrow' and 'time.' Thus, Redhorn is the fastest of all the competitors in the race.
|BAE 37: Pl. 44|
|The Ball-Headed Warclub|
"bald-headed warclub" — the explicit mention of this kind of warclub is meant to notify the listener that Redhorn and his brothers, in their lives as human beings, belong to the Upper Moiety. This moiety is sometimes referred to as the "Bird Clan," since it is composed of the Thunderbird, Eagle, Pigeon, and Hawk (Warrior) Clans. The head chief, the Peace Chief, is drawn from the Thunderbird Clan. The ball-headed warclub is used exclusively by the Upper Moiety, whereas the Lower Moiety uses a flat warclub that resembles contemporary hockey sticks.
"he refused" — incarnated Spirits do not fast, so mentioning this incident is designed to foreshadow the revelation that Redhorn is just such a Spirit.
See the Commentary to "Redhorn's Father."
Comparative Material. The Ioway have two stories that are parallel to the Hočąk. The first one shows some agreement with the beginning of the Redhorn Cycle. "There were once ten brothers, six of whom were good hunters, three poor hunters, while the last was the hero of this tale. The eldest boys all killed big game, and the other three killed only turkeys, raccoons, and skunks respectively. One day it was announced that there was to be a great race around the world, and the tenth boy told the three poor hunters to get boughs and make a sweat lodge. The boys did this, while the six who were good hunters jeered and laughed at them and made their own lodge. However after they had sweated, and the youngest brother had pulled at their hair till it was very long, then he too sweated and became handsome. He put on his best clothes, placed his human head earbobs in his ears, and came out. When the elder brothers saw how fine the younger ones looked, they became very jealous. On the day of the race all the brothers appeared at the appointed spot. The contest was to be against a party of giants who had mucus hanging from their noses and who always won. The whole tribe was to try against them on this occasion in hopes of wiping them out, for the people had lost many of their number through these giants, who always bet a life against a life. Human-head-earrings won the race, and slew the giants, in which he was assisted by two friends that he had made, Turtle and Blackhawk."2
The Ioway also tell a very similar story in connection with their Twins. In the following, the one called "Man in the Earring" is clearly the counterpart to Redhorn, also known as "He who Wears Human Heads as Earrings." "The Twins went off again, and presently they came to a village where there were three leading chiefs. These were Greda'he the Black Hawk, Ke'tonha the Snapping Turtle, and Wankistogre or Man-in-the-earring. They had a feast, and one of the chiefs announced that there would be a great race, and whoever won should be given his daughter as a prize. The course of the race was from one corner of the world to the other. Every creeping thing, every fowl of the air, Rain-Man, Thunder-Man, Lightning-Man, and Little God; they too were in it. The chief took one of the clan peace pipes and said, 'This pipe you all see. One of you will start carrying it, and whoever shall overtake him shall take and carry the pipe until someone else overhauls him and captures it. The one who completes the course and brings it back to me shall be the winner.' Turtle, who is unable to run very fast, saw the pipe and he went and made one just like it. He took it and circled and came running back with the false pipe and cried, 'I win the race, give me the woman.' 'No,' said the chief, 'wait till the others come in.' But Turtle said, 'No, I want her now.' However the chief would not let him have her, and finally the others came in and Wankistogre, the Man-in-the-earring, brought in the real pipe and won. He received the woman, and became the ruler of the people, but Turtle's trick was the start of the false peace pipes that some people still hold and call genuine Iowa clan peace pipes."3
In a Fox story, Turtle engages in the same kind of cheating. "There was this great big lake. And there was a Turtle. ... this race was planned. And the Turtle got together ahead of time with other turtle friends and set them up in certain key places along the line of the track. He set up these other turtles. And when the race started, the Deer was running on the ground and the Turtle was in the water. And every time the Deer would come to one of these selected places, one of the Turtle's friends would lift up his head. And the Deer would say, 'Oh, I am losing this race.' And then he would run faster. And he would come to the next place and there ahead of him a Turtle would pop up his head. And the Deer would think, 'I am losing this race.' And he would run even faster. And at every step along the line one of the Turtle's friends would lift up his head and the Deer would run even faster because he thought that he had lost the race. And at the end of the line, the first and the last Turtle popped up his head and won the race. The first and the last Turtle was the Turtle that was racing him and he was there all the time and didn't move but had just had his friends scattered around the water on the outside edge."4
Links: Redhorn, The Redhorn Cycle, The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave. An American Star Map, The Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle, Turtle Spirits, Heroka, Black Hawk, Black Hawks, Hummingbirds, Bird Spirits, Hawks, Eagle (I), Tobacco, Thunderbirds, Nightspirits, Bear Spirits, Deer Spirits, Gourd Rattles.
Links within the Redhorn Cycle: §2. Kunu's Warpath.
Stories: about Redhorn: The Redhorn Cycle, Redhorn's Sons, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Redhorn's Father, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Spirit of Gambling, The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, cp. The Cosmic Ages of the Hočągara; featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Redhorn's Sons, Turtle and the Witches, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Nannyberry Picker, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning turtles (other than Turtle): Turtle's Warparty, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Porcupine and His Brothers, Redhorn's Sons, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Healing Blessing, The Spider's Eyes, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, The Mesquaki Magician; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧábᵉra, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Black Otter's Warpath, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Nightspirits: The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Origins of the Sore Eye Dance, The Rounded Wood Origin Myth, The Big Stone, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Fourth Universe, Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Ocean Duck, The Origins of the Nightspirit Starting Songs, Black Otter's Warpath, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Sun and the Big Eater; mentioning black hawks: Hawk Clan Origin Myth (v. 2), The Dipper, The Thunderbird, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved her Half-Brother, Waruǧábᵉra, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Keramaniš’aka's Blessing; mentioning eagles: Eagle Clan Origin Myth, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 2), Pigeon Clan Origins, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Trickster and the Eagle, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, The Gift of Shooting, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Origin of the Cliff Swallow; featuring deer as characters: Deer Clan Origin Myth, Little Fox and the Ghost, Porcupine and His Brothers, Wolves and Humans, The Green Man, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Trickster's Tail, Fireman's Brother; mentioning (spirit) bears (other than were-bears): White Bear, Blue Bear, Black Bear, Red Bear, Bear Clan Origin Myth, The Shaggy Man, Bear Offers Himself as Food, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, The Spotted Grizzly Man, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Redhorn's Sons, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The Messengers of Hare, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Red Man, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Two Boys, Creation of the World (v. 5), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Brown Squirrel, Snowshoe Strings, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, The Spider's Eyes, Little Priest's Game, Little Priest, How He went out as a Soldier, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), How the Thunders Met the Nights, Trickster's Tail, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Warbundle Maker, cf. Fourth Universe; mentioning hummingbirds: The Dipper, The Thunderbird, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5); about Bird Spirits: Crane and His Brothers, The King Bird, Bird Origin Myth, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Owl Goes Hunting, The Boy Who Became a Robin, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Foolish Hunter, Ocean Duck, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Quail Hunter, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster and the Geese, Holy One and His Brother (kaǧi, woodpeckers, hawks), Porcupine and His Brothers (Ocean Sucker), Turtle's Warparty (Thunderbirds, eagles, kaǧi, pelicans, sparrows), Kaǧiga and Lone Man (kaǧi), The Old Man and the Giants (kaǧi, bluebirds), The Bungling Host (snipe, woodpecker), The Red Feather, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Waruǧábᵉra, Black and White Moons, The Markings on the Moon, The Creation Council, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna (chicken hawk), Hare Acquires His Arrows, Keramaniš’aka's Blessing (black hawk, owl), Heną́ga and Star Girl (black hawk), The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth (black hawk, kaǧi), Worúxega (eagle), The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (eagle), The Gift of Shooting (eagle), Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Blue Jay, The Baldness of the Buzzard, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster (buzzards), The Shaggy Man (kaǧi), The Healing Blessing (kaǧi), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (kaǧi), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Įčorúšika and His Brothers (Loon), Great Walker's Medicine (loon), Roaster (woodsplitter), The Spirit of Gambling, The Big Stone (a partridge), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, The Story of the Medicine Rite (loons, cranes, turkeys), The Fleetfooted Man, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4) — see also Thunderbirds; mentioning deer lungs: The Fleetfooted Man, A Man and His Three Dogs.
Themes: a large group of brothers (usually ten) live alone together: Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Quail Hunter, Bladder and His Brothers, Wojijé, The Spotted Grizzly Man; a challenger comes shaking a gourd rattle: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, Grandfather's Two Families, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Redhorn Contests the Giants, White Wolf; a young man, who later turns out to be holy, is criticized by his elders for not conducting his puberty fast: Moiety Origin Myth, Origin of the Decorah Family; a holy young man is given an insulting name, but later makes known his true name (given to him by the spriits) in conjunction with a great feat: Moiety Origin Myth; racing around (the edge of) the world: Grandfather's Two Families, Elk, Pigeon Clan Origins, Origin of the Hočąk Chief; ; a spirit turns into an arrow and shoots himself from his own bow: Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins (v. 2), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head; a chief gives away his daughter as a prize for achievement: The Red Feather, The Chief of the Heroka, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Thunderbird and White Horse; a prize is claimed by someone who cheated in a race by doubling back before reaching the midway turn-around point: Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark; Turtle wrongfully tries to take the chief's daughter who has been given (as a prize) to someone else to marry: The Chief of the Heroka, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; a hero wins a girl but decides to let one of his brothers marry her: The Raccoon Coat, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son; marriage to a yųgiwi (princess): The Nannyberry Picker, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Big Stone, Partridge's Older Brother, Redhorn's Sons, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, The Roaster, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Two Boys, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Shaggy Man, The Thunderbird, The Red Feather, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Birth of the Twins (v. 3), Trickster Visits His Family, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, Redhorn's Father, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Morning Star and His Friend, Thunderbird and White Horse, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Shakes the Earth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; the eldest and youngest brothers dominate: Bladder and His Brothers, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Story of the Medicine Rite; the youngest offspring is superior: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Young Man Gambles Often, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Twins Cycle, The Two Boys, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Children of the Sun, The Creation of the World (v. 12), Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Sun and the Big Eater, The Story of the Medicine Rite, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 4, 7), Snake Clan Origins, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, Snake Clan Origins, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth; red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Nannyberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket).
1 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 115-118.
2 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan), and Julia Small (Otoe), "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [456-457].
3 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Otoe), "Dore and Wahredua," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [440-441].
4 Fred McTaggart, Wolf That I Am: In Search of the Red Earth People (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976) 76.