Thruston Tablet Notes


Front Matter

1 General Gates P. Thruston, The Antiquities of Tennessee and the Adjacent States, and the State of Aboriginal Society in the Scale of Civilization Represented by Them; a Series of Historical and Ethnological Studies (Cincinnati: The R. Clarke Company, 1897) 90, Plate 2. Vincas P. Steponaitis, Vernon James Knight, Jr., George E. Lankford, Robert V. Sharp, and David H. Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," Visualizing the Sacred. Cosmic Visions, Regionalism, and the Art of the Mississippian World, edd. George E. Lankford, F. Kent Reilly III, and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010) 137-176 [138, Fig. 7.1].
2 William H. Holmes, "The Thruston Tablet," American Anthropologist, 4, #2 (April, 1891): 161-165 [post 161, Plate 1]. Lila Fundaburk and Mary Douglass Fundaburk Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands: The Southeastern Indians Art and Industries (Fairhope, Alabama: Southern Publications, 1957) Plate 56. Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," 140, Fig.7.2.
3 Willard Van Orman Quine, Word & Object (Cambridge: M. I. T. Press, 1960) 13 f.


§1. The Prequel.

1 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," 137-176. The footnote below gives some idea of the geographical extent of stories about the Hero Twins.
2 As opponents — Robert Harry Lowie, The Assiniboine, Volume 4, Part 1 of Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History (New York: The Trustees, 1910) 176. As amicable brothers — Jerome Fourstar, "How the Morning and Evening Stars Came to Be," in How the Morning and Evening Stars Came to Be and Other Assiniboine Indian Stories (Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 2003) 1-23.
3 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"157-159.
4 From the original English translation found in Paul Radin, "Hąpwira Hinįkwahira," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Notebook 12, 1-56 [30-31].
5 (46) Hakewe (47) wa’ųrawiže. Wažą’ųra e howarairegi: Wąkjąkaga hereanąga égi Kečąkega, égi Watexúga, égi Wašjįgega égi Hešučka, égi Hąpwira, žeženąga wa’ųwiže. Wagųsra e howarairegiži, hagoreižą hahíreže. ... (50) Hąhą́, hišgé nįgijitekjawiną," éže. Wiwéwį homįnąkeja hanįguže, žegų čoraraže. Jasgéxjį hanihahirega, nųpáha žesgexjį hija ne hokanąkše. ... (53) Wašjįgega wa’inąpše. Hižą ’ųkjanahera wagųzniwieja (54) higijewigiži, hanihagigikjanaheną. Hokaranąkre égi hanį́ ha’ųkjanaheną," éže. Égi Wažą’ųra wawa’įkinąpše. Paul Radin, "The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #2: 1-123 [46-54].
6 The "star" is 6 pointed, but a count of exterior and interior angles adds up to 12, a luni-solar number equal to the number of petals on the rim of the design. William H. Holmes, Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 2nd Annual Report (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1881) 280, Plate 57.
7 F. Kent Reilly III, "The Petaloid Motif: A Celestial Symbolic Locative in the Shell Art of Spiro," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 39-55.
8 The Hočągara also have the same style of target that we do, except that the concentric rings are apparently laid down on the ground horizontally, which is the same way that the target form is seen when taken as a symbol of the center, being a view of malinalli lines as seen from above or below. For the rings, see "Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2)" (McKern Papers, 225).
9 The Kiowa Twins myth makes a clever move. The Sun impregnates the mother, but she gives birth to just one son. One day, this son is throwing a target into the air and it cleaves him in two, thus creating the Twins. Here the target is just another representation of the Sun, who thus creates his second son. "How the Half Boys Came to Be," in Alice Marriott and Carol K. Rachlin, American Indian Mythology (New York: New American Library, 1968) 102-115.
51.   67.
9.1 Mallery says that the Ojibwe pictograph above (67) denotes the sun, but cites Schoolcraft as his source, who actually says that it means "time." Nevertheless, its center is red, which probably indicates the solar disk, the usual measure of time. This finds some confirmation in pictograph 51, which shows the sun in listening attitude, where the blue enclosing circle indicates the sky. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia: Lippincott & Grambo, 1851) 1:409, Nos. 51, 67 from Plate 58. Col. Garrick Mallery, Picture-writing of the American Indians, 2 vols. (New York: Courier Dover Publications, 1972 [1884]) 2:695, Fig. 1121. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyph for the sun was , which is a minimal "target" design. Mallery, Picture-writing of the American Indians, 2:695, Fig. 1120.
10 Égi wa’ųže. Čahasgaižą či hokisageja ruparáže. Égi wa’ųže. Nąčge homįnąkeja hanįguže. Rokana kąnąpjįže. Čapanąka éja hakanakše. Žegų éja hota hahąpnąkše. "The Twins Retrieve Red Star's," Winnebago V, #2: 42.
11 Alfredo López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist. Trs. Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano and Thelma Ortiz de Montellano (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1997) 108-110, 117.
12 Louis F. Burns, Osage Indian Customs and Myths (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1984) 158, 159, Fig. 13.
13 Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 66-70; Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) 52-53.
13.1 "The Sun is a circular plane, composed of wood, which burns perpetually. It is supposed to have life, to be furnished with heat by the great Spirit and to have for its resting place the eastern extremity of the earth before mentioned." Charles C. Trowbridge, "Manners, Customs, and International Laws of the Win-nee-baa-goa Nation," (1823), Winnebago Manuscripts, in MS/I4ME, Charles Christopher Trowbridge Collection (02611), Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library, 96.
14 George E. Lankford, "World on a String: Some Cosmological Components of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 206-217.
15 Marino has naįgitarasi for naįgikarasi, the latter form being attested in the literature. Marino also has the component word hikáras, but not hitaras. Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 325, s.v. naįgidarasi.
16 Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) s.v.
17 Éja Watexúga ’ųgiži, hišgé žesge hiže. Éja Hąpwira ’ųgiži, hišgé žesge hiže. "The Twins Retrieve Red Star's, "Winnebago V, #2: 43.


§2. The Combat Scene and the Symbology of the Twins.

1 Seneca — "98. The Woman Who Fell from the Sky," in Jeremiah Curtin and John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt (collectors), Seneca Fiction, Legends, and Myths, in Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1918) 32: 462. Huron — Ella Elizabeth Clark, Indian Legends of Canada (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1960) 2.
2 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," 154-155, 164.

3 In this gorget from Tennessee, we see the woodpeckers arranged at the four quarters with a sun symbol in the center. Holmes, Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans, 284, Plate 59.
4 George E. Lankford, Lost Lore: Studies in Folklore, Ethnology, and Iconography (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2008) 139-162.
5 Little Chief, "67. How the Cannibal Spider-Woman was Overcome," in George A. Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1906]) 222.
6 q.v. Robert Small (Oto, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Oto), "Dore and Wahredua," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [427-428].
7 q.v. Alanson Skinner and Satterlee, "8. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," Folklore of the Menomini Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 13 (1915): 337-342 [337-338].
8 q.v. Francis La Flesche, Ke-ma-ha: The Omaha Stories of Francis La Flesche (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995) 75. James Owen Dorsey, "Abstracts of Omaha and Ponka Myths I," The Journal of American Folklore, 1, #1 (Apr. - June, 1888): 74-78 [77].
9 q.v. Robert Bell, "The History of the Che-che-puy-ew-tis, A Legend of the Northern Cree," The Journal of American Folk-lore,10 (1897): 1-8 [3].
10 Mary Lasley, "Sac and Fox Tales," The Journal of American Folk-lore, 15 (1903): 170-178 [176]. The Zuñi Aihayuta, the War Twins, are in the habit of eating rats for breakfast. Waisilutiwa, "7. Underground to the Monsters: The Stuffed Gods," in Elsie Clews Parsons, "Zuñi Tales," The Journal of American Folklore, 43, #167 (Jan. - Mar., 1930): 1-58 [32].
11 "114. The Twins: Grandsons of Gahoⁿ‘dji’dā́‘hoⁿk," Jeremiah Curtin and John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt (collectors), Seneca Fiction, Legends, and Myths, in Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1918) 32: 554.
12 "The Lost Blanket," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #2: 123-247 [126-127].
13 For Apollo Smintheus, see Daniel E. Gershenson, Apollo the Wolf-god. Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph #8 (McLean, Virginia: Institute for the Study of Man, 1991) 31-33.
14 The scientific name for the raccoon is Procyon lotor.

... the second half of the raccoon's scientific name, lotor, means "washer." Undoubtedly, they may wash crayfish and the other items they catch in or near water to clean off the sand and dirt from them. But most of the time that raccoons are putting their food into water, they are merely dousing or dunking it, an activity that has nothing to do with cleanliness. Clean, dirty, wet, and dry foods are all dunked with similar frequency. Raccoons probably handle their food in water to provide greater tactile sensation.

Samuel I. Zeveloff, Raccoons: A Natural History (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2002) 7.
15 Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians,"432. For Wahrédua, I have substituted Warédwa, and for Dore, Doré. This is in accord with Jimm Goodtracks, Baxoje - Jiwere - Nyut’aji - Ma’unke, Iowa - Otoe - Missouria Language to English (Boulder: by the author, 1992) 85, #4408, s.v. Warédwa/Wahrédwa; 265, #8442, s.v. "Twin Holy Boys' Names."
16 Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians,"435.
17 In this tale, the two boys plot to kill a demonic witch.

Long-Tooth-Boy becomes a raccoon, which the older brother kills, and a the old woman's request takes it into her lodge. Inside the lodge he places meat in a pot, and on top, his head resting upon his paws, being careful not to cut the intestines. A big fire is kindled under the pot and soon the raccoon sticks out its tongue, which is the signal for the older brother to leave the lodge. The old woman, owing to the heat in the lodge, has removed her garments; the pot now boils over and splashes on the woman, who falls toward the fire and is killed.

Thief, "40. Long-Tooth-Boy," in Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology, 493.
18 Among the Crow it is said, "They told their mother to be the moon and their father the morningstar; Curtain-boy was to be the last star in the Dipper, and Spring-boy the eveningstar. " Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge-Boy and Thrown-Away," in Robert H. Lowie, Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 74-85 [85].
18.1 Very similar in design are the following from the works of George Catlin: a gorget almost identical in design, Chee-me-nah-na-quet, Great Cloud, son of Grizzly Bear: 1831 (Menominee); PonkaMong-shóng-sha, Bending Willow, Wife of Great Chief: 1832 (on her blanket); PonkaShoo-de-gá-cha, The Smoke, Chief of the Tribe: 1832 (on his robe); Lakota: Ee-ah-sa-pa, Black Rock, a Two Kettle Chief: 1832 (on a blanket); YanktonaiWán-ee-ton, Chief of the Tribe: 1832 (on his blanket); HidatsaWife of Two Crows: 1832 (on her shoulder); HidatsaSeet-sé-be-a, Midday Sun, a Pretty Girl: 1832 (on the shoulder of her dress); CrowEe-hee-a-duck-cee-a, He Who Ties His Hair Before: 1832 (on a blanket); MandanMi-néek-ee-súnk-te-ka, Mink, a Beautiful Girl: 1832 (on her right sleeve); ArikaraPshán-shaw, Sweet-Scented Grass, Twelve-year-old Daughter of Bloody Hand, 1832 (on her blanket); FoxThree Fox Indians: 1837 (on the back of a robe); OjibweWife of The Six: 1832 (on her shoulder); OjibweKay-a-gís-gis, a Young Woman: 1832 (on the shoulder of her dress); CheyenneTís-se-wóona-tis, She Who Bathes Her Knees, Wife of the Chief: 1832 (on both shoulders); BlackfootAh'-kay-ee-pix-en, Woman Who Strikes Many: 1832 (on her blanket); BlackfootWún-nes-tou, White Buffalo, an Aged Medicine Man: 1832 (on his robe); CreeTsee-moúnt, Great Wonder, Carrying Her Baby in Her Robe: 1832 (on the back of a robe).
19 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"152.
20 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"163.
21 Pettazzoni has collected a wide range of examples.

According to the Masai, Ngai sees with them at night, but in the daytime the sun is his eye. More commonly the daily and nightly vision are divided between the two great eyes of heaven, i.e., the two larger luminaries, the sun by day and the moon by night. For the Tlinkit on the north-west Pacific coast of North America, sun and moon are "the eyes of the sky," and the same idea is found in the Polynesian mythology, sun and moon being thought of as the eyes either of the sky (New Zealand) or of a supreme sky-god. The Samoyed sky-god Num has the sun and moon for eyes, the sun being his good and the moon his bad eye. Among the Batek (Semang of Pahang on the peninsula of Malacca), the sun is the right and the moon the left eye of the sky-god Keto. The idea is already found in ancient Egypt, where the old sky-god Horus has the sun and moon for eyes and Amun, god of the weather-sky, has the sun for his right, the moon for his left eye, while the wind is the breath issuing from his nostrils. In the Japanese cosmogonic myth of Izanangi and Izanami, who are the ancient cosmic pair, Father Sky and Mother Earth, the water with which Izanagi washes his left eye gives birth to Amaterasu the sun-goddess, and that with which he washes his right eye to Tsuki-Yomi, god of the moon, while that in which he washes his nose produces Susanowo, god of the storm-wind. The same motif is found again in the Chinese myth of P’anku, founded upon the idea that the elements and the constituent parts of the universe are the members or organs of a gigantic primaeval being, such as P’anku is, whose eyes become the sun and moon (left and right eye respectively). Such also is the Vedic Purusha, from whose eye the sun is born, from his mind the moon, from his breath the wind (Vayu), and so on (Ṛg-Veda x, 90, I3), also Brahman in the Atharva-Veda (v, 10, 7, 33) and Prajāpati in the Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa (vii, 1, 2, 7), whose eyes are the sun and moon. In Orphism also we find the idea of the sun and moon being the eyes of Zeus, that is of the universe, of which the sky is the head.

Raffaele Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," Numen, 2, ##1-2 (Jan.-May, 1950): 1-27 [9].
22 Meeker reports,

Many things are told of the mice eating the Rabbit's eye and the expedients by which he tried to regain possession of the lost member. One account makes him get the eye of another animal. The initiated know that the eye of the Rabbit is the moon, and that the figure we see on the face of the full moon is the reflection of the Rabbit in his own eye, as we see ourselves reflected in the eye of a friend if we look closely.

Louis L. Meeker, “Siouan Mythological Tales,” Journal of American Folklore, 14 (1901): 161-164.
23 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," 166.
24 Personal communication, Lance Foster to Richard Dieterle, January 6, 2013.
25 "Osage Warrior" by Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin (1770-1852).
26  "Chono Cape, an Ottoe Chief," by Henry Inman (1801-1846). Col. Thomas Loraine McKenney and James Hall, The Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs, ed.. Frederick Hodge and David Bushnell, 4 vols. (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1934 [1842]) Plate 24. This name is said to mean "Big Kansa," but Foster points out (p.c., 1/6/2013) that it is a corruption of Shunga Pi, "Good Horse." For a similar headdress style, cf. George Catlin's "Jee-hé-o-hó-shah, Cannot Be Thrown Down, a Warrior: 1832," and "Shó-me-kós-see, The Wolf, a Chief: 1832."
27 Holmes, "The Thruston Tablet," 162.
28 William Tomkins, Universal Indian Sign Language of the Plains Indians of North America, 5th ed. (San Diego, published by the author, ca. 1931) s.v. "Medicine Man."
29 Rémy Siméon, Dictionaire de la langue nahuatl ou mexicaine (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1885) 251b, s.v. malinalli.
30 John Bierhorst, A Nahuatl-English Dictionary and Concordance to the Cantares Mexicanos: with an Analytic Transcription and Grammatical Notes (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985) 196 s.v. malīna.
31 q.v. Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 104-106. Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) §5, pp. 78-80. Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3851 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago IV, #1: 77-91.
32 Thruston, The Antiquities of Tennessee and the Adjacent States, 96. Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," 139.
33 q.v. "The Two Boys," Winnebago V, # 2: 318-319.
34 q.v. "The Two Boys," Winnebago V, # 2: 318.
35 Elmer G. Suhr, Before Olympos: A Study of the Aniconic Origins of Poseidon, Hermes and Eros (New York: Helios Books, 1967) 72-73.


§3. The Birth of the Twins.

1 The Thruston Group has this to say about this scene:

The most identifiable elements in this composition are a headless torso and a disembodied head, both apparently human (156, Fig. 7.12b). The torso wears a kilt and its arms are clearly depicted. In the right hand is an object that is unusual but not unknown in Mississippian art. It has been identified elsewhere as the proboscis of a moth held in the same manner (Vernon James Knight and Judith A. Franke, "Identification of a Moth/Butterfly Supernatural in Mississippian Art," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 136-151 [143 Fig. 6.5]). We assigned the disembodied head to the Background but not with great confidence, as it might fit equally well with Foreground Group 2 [Capture Scene]. Differentiating the lines belonging to the kilt and those belonging [to] the Leg (a separate layer described below [pp. 159-160, and here]) was also difficult.

Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"159, "Background Group 2." It should be pointed out that the proboscis of the moth, a supernatural nicknamed "Mothra," is never seen decorated with target motifs. These, along with triangular "fringe" are associated with its wings. For pictures of Mothra, see this. However, the kilt of Ghost (Line Face) is characterized by both of these motifs. If this is the proboscis, where is the rest of the moth? The alleged kilt is unlike that seen anywhere else. The head is not just a detached head, as the back neck line extends down to the bottom of the composition, and should be interpreted as his back. We will also see that the head is integral to the composition when the myth is used as a guide. That Flesh is represented by his head is merely another case of pars pro toto.
2 I once asked (1985) the culture bearer of the Wisconsin Hočągara, Wally Funmaker, what the "deeper meaning" of Ghost and Flesh might be, and he replied calmly (without reference to the idiocy of the question), "Ghost and flesh."
3 The figure called "Ghost" or "Stump" in the writings of Radin never has his name mentioned, which strongly suggests that a taboo surrounded its utterance. His name is mentioned once in J. O. Dorsey's collection as Wanaxíniñka, and several times in the collections of Amelia Susman (1). At the time that he uttered his name, Susman's raconteur (Sam Blowsnake) no longer believed in the traditional religion. The name "Stump" is really elliptic for a description, "he whose grandmother is a stump" (nąhúič hikaroge híjega).
4 "The Children of the Sun," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 75-80. The original English translation is found in Paul Radin, "Hąpwira Hinįkwahira," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Notebook 12, 1-56. Apparently the story was obtained by Sam Blowsnake of the Thunderbird Clan from an anonymous older member of the tribe ca. 1912 (Ibid., 21).
5 q.v. Ahahe, "12. The Deeds of After-Birth-Boy," in George A. Dorsey, The Mythology of the Wichita (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995 [1904]) 88-102 [88-95].
6 Weston La Barre, Muelos: A Stone Age Superstition about Sexuality (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984).
7 Richard Broxton Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951) 96 seq. See the discussion at "The Gottschall Head."
8 q.v. Alexander Longtail, "The Two Brothers, Waloga and Little Ghost," text with interlinear translation by James Owen Dorsey, 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago 3.3.2 (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, October and November, 1893) Story V: 1-9, 16-19 [7].
9 According to Reuben StCyr as recorded by Dorsey. James Owen Dorsey, Winnebago-English Vocabulary and Winnebago Verbal Notes, 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago (3.3.2) 321 [old no. 1226] (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, 1888) 82 pp. It is used in this primary sense by John Baptiste in "Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks" — vide, ttiAi ℒ Ae tt = čiraheja; ttiAi ℒ Ae ℒ = čirahera. John Baptiste (trs.), "Wakjukaga," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #7: 104-151. The term is widely attested in its secondary meaning of "roof, top of lodge."
10 It appears that the water symbol was originally fused with the "home" logogram, but a second hand found this insufficiently informative, and added another set of wavy lines which are rather sloppy and not well integrated with the original wave or the line representing the back of Flesh.

The form at the left is a continuous line that integrates the water and the lodge symbols. This is a way of expressing identity: home = water, since they are "all one" forming a single grapheme.
11 "Motion lines serve their purpose in a deceptively simple way. A line is drawn from where an object was, follows the path the object traveled, and ends at the place where the object is." Brad J. Guigar, "Showing Action." Viewed: 12/8/2012.
12 q.v. Keeley Bassette (Waterspirit Clan), "Legend," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 149. Charles E. Brown, Wisconsin Indian Place Legends (Madison: Works Progress Administration, Wisconsin, 1936): 5; Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 166. David Lee Smith (Thunderbird Clan), "How Valleys and Ravines Came to Be," in Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe, 100-101.


§4. The Theft of the Arrows (the Reverse Panel).

1 (260) Égi wahohiže, čągéja jegá, "Warora, hi’ąčraga hija nąkše?" ahohiže. Égi wakarehiže, "S’ireją nąkíkara reną," higeže. "Huré. Koté, hišgajikje," higeže. Hijájiže. Éja hąpséreč šgačwiže. Mą (261) wanigiži, čira heja wa’ųre hiwianąga hihinąpiranąga sto wakaragires’aže. Égi hoxjanągiži, žigé žesge hiwiže. Mąra čira heja wa’ųre hiwiže. Nįgowajijane wa’ųže. Mąra stosto wahianąga nųgíwąkše. Ruxa nunige t’ųranąkireže. Móga hihagéja ginąkanąga (261+) wéže, "Wakíkųnųnį́," ánąga nieja hot’ąpkereže. Nįeja xawanį́ gikeregiži, žegų hįké haǧepnįže. Ğakų-wa’ųjegiži, žegųgųže. "The Epic of the Twins, Part Three," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 58-74. The original text is in Paul Radin, "The Two Boys" (Hočįčįnįk Nųpiwi), Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, # 2: 247-379 [260-261+].
2 This should be a sub-theme of Reichard's Theme E, "Thrown-Away plays with brother, escapes at father's approach," but this set of correspondents was not collected. Gladys A. Reichard, "Literary Types and Dissemination of Myths," Journal of American Folk-lore, 34, #133 (July - Sept., 1921): 269-307 [272-274]. The Wichita have a theft of the arrows episode very similar to that of the Hočągara — Ahahe, "12. The Deeds of After-Birth-Boy," in George A. Dorsey, The Mythology of the Wichita (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995 [1904]) 88-102 [92-95]. KickapooKickapoo Tales, collected by William Jones, trs. by Truman Michelson. Publications of the American Ethnological Society (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1915) 9:67-73. It is also well developed among the Cree. Bell, "The History of the Che-che-puy-ew-tis, A Legend of the Northern Cree," 3. In the Seneca version, the lodge boy loses his bow and arrows to his brother who lives in a stump. "98. The Woman Who Fell from the Sky," in Jeremiah Curtin and John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt (collectors), Seneca Fiction, Legends, and Myths, in Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1918) 32: 460. Reproduced in Stith Thompson, Tales of the North American Indians (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1929) 14-17. The Tsimshians have changed the characters around, but the episode is still there — Moses, "Txä́msᴇm and Lôɢ̣ôbolā́," in Franz Boas, Tsimshian Texts. Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 27 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1902) 6-10 [10] (steals the arrows of the chief's nephews, the same who later capture him). In the Crow tale, the wild boy wins the arrows by gambling with his brother. Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 76. The Creeks say that the tame boy asked for another arrow, arousing the suspicions of his father. "2. Bead-Spitter and Thrown-Away," in Swanton, Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians, 4. In the Hidatsa version, they do not play at archery, but at what appears to be chunkey, there called "roulette." Washington Matthews, Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians. Miscellaneous Publications, #7. (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1877) 65-66. In the Gros Ventre version, the arrows are merely scattered about the lodge. "19. Found-in-the-Grass," in Alfred Louis Kroeber, Gros Ventre Myths and Tales, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1907) Volume 1, Part 3, 79. The Onondaga say that the father noticed that a second bow had been used, and so discovered his other son. Erminnie A. Smith, "Infant Nursed by Bears," in Myths of the Iroquois, Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, vol. 2 (1880-1881): 49-116 [84-85]. This is repeated in a shorter form in W. M. Beauchamp, "Onondaga Tales," The Journal of American Folk-lore, 6 (1892-1893): 173-180 [178-179]. In the Micmac account, the boy and arrows are used as bait to lure the spring boy out; but there is a dieresis which omits the details. Isabella Googoo Morris, "Ketpusyégenau," in Elsie Clews Parsons, "Micmac Folklore," The Journal of American Folk-lore, 38 (1925): 56-133 [56]. Arrows are also used as bait in the Blackfoot version. "The Twin Brothers, or Stars," in Clark Wissler and D. C. Duvall, Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995 [1908]) 40-52 [42]. The Natchez say that the boy was captured when he attempted to secure something with which to sharpen his arrow. "5. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in John Reed Swanton, Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 88 (1929): 223. This theme is missing in Ioway, Omaha, Menomini, Fox and Sauk, Arapaho, Kiowa, Caddo, Pawnee, Arikara, Cherokee, Huron, Northern Shoshone, Hopi, Tewa, Taos, Zuñi, and Navajo.
3 Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 74-85. Cf. Moses, "The Stars," in Franz Boas, Tsimshian Texts. Nass River Dialect. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 27 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1902) 86-93.


§5. The Binding of the Soul: The Capture of Ghost and the Hóega.

1 "The Two Boys," Winnebago V, # 2: 247-379 [287-288].
2 For an overview of the Twins mythology, see Reichard, "Literary Types and Dissemination of Myths," 272-274. Ioway — Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," 428. Hidatsa — Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52 [33]. Matthews, Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians, 63-70 [66]. Crow — Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow," 77. Pawnee — "39. Handsome Boy and After-Birth Boy," in Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology, 147, 492. Wichita — Ahahe, "12. The Deeds of After-Birth-Boy," in George A. Dorsey, The Mythology of the Wichita (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995 [1904]) 88-102 [88-95]. Arikara — Alfred Morsette, "4. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Douglas R. Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Stories of Alfred Morsette: Interlinear Linguistic Texts (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 1:22-43 [27]; Lillian Brave, "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," 2:693-715 [705]. CaddoWing, "17. The Brothers Who Became Thunder and Lightning," in George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Caddo (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1905]) 31-36 [33]. Micmac — Isabella Googoo Morris, "Ketpusyégenau," in Elsie Clews Parsons, "Micmac Folklore," The Journal of American Folk-lore, 38 (1925): 56-133 [56-59]. Menomini — Alanson Skinner and Satterlee, "8. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," Folklore of the Menomini Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 13 (1915): 337-342 [338]. Sauk — Mary Lasley, "Sac and Fox Tales," The Journal of American Folk-lore, 15 (1903): 170-178, where he is captured by his scalp lock. Arapaho — Tall Bear, "139. Found-in-Grass," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 341-350 [341-344]. Blackfoot —"The Twin Brothers, or Stars," in Clark Wissler and D. C. Duvall, Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995 [1908]) 40-52 [42] (where only the father wrestles the wild boy). Gros Ventre — "19. Found-in-the-Grass," in Alfred Louis Kroeber, Gros Ventre Myths and Tales, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1907) Volume 1, Part 3, 77-82. Kiowa — "How the Half Boys Came to Be," in Alice Marriott and Carol K. Rachlin, American Indian Mythology (New York: New American Library, 1968) 102-115 (a grandmother captures him). Cherokee — "Kanáti and Selu: The Origin of Game and Corn," in James Mooney, History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees (Asheville, North Carolina: Bright Mountain Books, 1992 [1891/1900]) Story 3, 242, 246-247. Natchez — "5. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in ,John Reed Swanton, Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 88 (1929): 222-223 (father binds him). Creek —"2. Bead-Spitter and Thrown-Away," in Swanton, Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians, 2-7 [4] (father grabs him). Northern Shoshone — "24. Lodge-BoyandThrown-Away," in Robert H. Lowie, The Northern Shoshone. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. 1, Part 1: 280-281. Tsimshian — Moses, "Txä́msᴇm and Lôɢ̣ôbolā́," in Boas, Tsimshian Texts, 6-10 [10] (chief's nephews). This theme is missing in the Omaha-Ponca, Seneca, Onondaga, Huron, Cree, Tewa, Taos, Hopi, and Navajo versions.
3 "39. Handsome Boy and After-Birth Boy," in Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology, 492.
4 Brad J. Guigar, "Showing Action." Viewed: 12/8/2012. The Thruston Group also appreciates that this represents motion, but interprets it as "caressing." Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"163.
5 Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton, "The Humpty Dumpty Circus" (Vitagraph, 1897/1898). Ray Harryhausen and Tony Dalton, A Century of Stop Motion Animation: From Méliès to Aardman (Lakewood: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2008) 39. Smith recounts how he used his daughter's circus figures whose limbs were designed to move. Albert E. Smith and Phil A. Koury, Two Reels and a Crank (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1985) 51.
6 Germaine Prudhommeau, "Le Dynamisme animal sur les monuments figurés du Paléolithique supérieur," Bulletin de la société d'études et de recherche préhistoriques, Les Eyzies, 6 (1956): [81-90]. Germaine Prudhommeau, "Problèmes de la représentation du mouvement sur les monuments figures paléolithiques," Bulletin de la société d'études et de recherche préhistoriques, Les Eyzies, 8 (1958): 125-140. Germaine Prudhommeau, "Étude d'une caverne ornée," Bulletin de la société d'études et de recherche préhistoriques, Les Eyzies, 9 (1959): 109-130. Germaine Prudhommeau, "Naissance du graphisme. Les figurations préhistoriques. Analyse du mouvement," Bulletin de la société d'études et de recherche préhistoriques, Les Eyzies – Travaux de1960, 10 (1961): 155-156; "Étude d'une caverne ornée: Font-de-Gaume," Bulletin de la société d'études et de recherche préhistoriques, Les Eyzies – Travaux de1960, 10 (1961): 216-231. Germaine Prudhommeau, "La représentation du mouvement sur les monuments figurés du Paléolithique supérieur," Bulletin de la société d'études et de recherche préhistoriques, Les Eyzies – Travaux de1983, 33 (1984): 9-17. For early work on this subject, see the sources listed in Marc Azéma, "La représentation du mouvement au Paléolithique supérieur: Apport du comparatisme éthographique àl'interprétation de l'art pariétal," Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, 103, #3 (July-September, 2006): 479-505 [481]. Prudhommeau "shot a short film based on the Lascaux images." Jean-Loic Le Quellec, "Palaeolithic Art in Motion," Antiquity, 85 (2011): 1082-1083 [1083a].
7 Marc Azéma, La representation du mouvement sur les figurations zoomorphes de l'art paleolithique des Pyrenees. Unpublished DEA dissertation, Université de Provence, Aix-Marseille (1991). Marc Azéma, "La representation du mouvement dans l'art animalier paleolithique des Pyrenees," Bulletin de la Société Prehistorique Ariege-Pyrenees, 47 (1992): 19-76. Marc Azéma, "La decomposition du mouvement dans l'art animalier paleolithique des Pyrenees," Prehistoire et anthropologie mediterraneennes, 1 (1992): 17-31. Marc Azéma, La representation du mouvement dans l'art parietal francais: approche ethologique du bestiaire. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Université de Provence, Aix-Marseille (2003). Its findings were later published in Marc Azéma, L'art des cavernes en action. Tome 1: les animaux modeles. Aspect, locomotion, comportement (Paris: Errance, 2010). L'art des cavernes en action. Tome 2: les animaux figures. Animation et mouvement, l'illusion de la vie (Paris: Errance, 2010). For a review and summary, see Le Quellec, "Palaeolithic Art in Motion," 1082-1083. Marc Azéma, "La décomposition du mouvement dans l'art paléolithique / Breaking Down Movement in Palaeolithic Art," International Newsletter on Rock Art, #43 (2005): 14-21. Azéma, "La représentation du mouvement au Paléolithique supérieur," 479-505. Marc Azéma, "Representation of movement in Palaeolithic parietal art: an ethographical approach," Anthropozoologica, 43 (2008): 117-54. Marc Azéma, La préhistoire du cinéma: origines paléolithiques de la narration graphique et du cinématographe (Paris: Éditions Errance, 2012). Marc Azéma and Florent Rivière, "Animation in Paleolithic Art - A Pre-Echo of Cinema," Antiquity, 86 (2012): 316-324. Bruce Bower, "Stone Age art gets animated," Science News, 181, #13 (June 30, 2012): 12. Bruce Bower, "Avant-garde cave art," Science News, 182, #13 (December 29, 2012): 29.
8 Bower, "Stone Age art gets animated," 12.
9 Edward Wachtel, "The First Picture Show: Cinematic Aspects of Cave Art," Leonardo, 26, #2 (1993): 135-140 [139, and Figs. 6-7].
10 From the niche of the Panel of Horses, right side, Grotte Chauvet. The three pictures are based upon Azéma, "La représentation du mouvement au Paléolithique supérieur," 481, Fig. 1; and Azéma and Rivière, "Animation in Paleolithic Art - A Pre-Echo of Cinema," 319, Fig. 2. The latter source says, however, that it is from the Alcove of Lions. For a color picture, see Bruce Bower, "Avant-garde cave art," 29. For Azéma's film showing the stop-motion shots set to animation, see "Et si les hommes préhistoriques avaient inventé le dessin animé?" (where the bison is shown at 3:08 into the film). See also, "La préhistoire du cinéma" from Culture Box.
11 Sleipnir is the eight-legged horse of the Norse god Óðinn. There exist a number of ancient engravings of the god riding atop Sleipnir, leading to the interesting thought that his horse may have derived his eight legs from a misinterpretation of precisely the kind of animated iconography presently under discussion. For Sleipnir, see Prose Edda, Gylfaginning 15, 41; Poetic Edda, Grímnismál, Sigrdrífumál, Baldrs draumar, and Hyndluljóð; Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks, 36; Vǫlsungasaga, 13; Gesta Danorum, Books 1 and 2. The rock carving at the right is from a rune stone found in Ardre Parish, Götland, Sweden, now at the National Historical Museum in Stockholm, Sweden, museum number SHM 11118.
12 Le Quellec, "Palaeolithic Art in Motion," 1083a.
13 Léon Pales and Marie Tassin de Saint Péreuse, Les gravures de la Marche: Equidés et bovidés (Paris: Ophrys, 1981) Plates 71-73. Azéma and Rivière, "Animation in Paleolithic Art - A Pre-Echo of Cinema," 319, Fig. 3.
14 Such animations constitute, "barely more than 1% of all the zoomorphic figures known from French caves." Le Quellec, "Palaeolithic Art in Motion," 1083a.
15 Wachtel, "The First Picture Show: Cinematic Aspects of Cave Art," 137b.
16 Azéma and Rivière, "Animation in Paleolithic Art - A Pre-Echo of Cinema," 319.
17 Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 36th Annual Report (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1921) 277; see also, Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Wa-xó-be, 45th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1927-1928) 670.
18 Garrick A. Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, from the Works of Francis La Flesche (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995) 31.
19 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 115, ℓℓ. 23-29. Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Rite of Vigil. 45th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1927-1928) (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1925) 43. "Lines 24 and 25 of this section declare that the bonds to be put upon the wrists of the Xó-ka are captive bonds, but lines 26 to 29 say that in truth it is not the bond of a captive that is tied to each wrist of the Xó-ka, but a spirit. It would appear that these lines refer to the likening of the earth to a snare into which all life is drawn and held captive, not only in body but also in spirit." Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 114.
20 Burns, Osage Indian Customs and Myths, 158, 159, Fig. 13.
21 Yum, the Whirlwind, is the fifth son of Tate (Wind). James R. Walker, Lakota Belief and Ritual (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 28.
22 Philip Phillips and James A. Brown, Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings: from the Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma. 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum Press, ca. 1975-1982) 2:125, 2:131G, 2:140C, and 191K.
23  Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 12.
24 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet," 137.
25 Phillips and Brown, Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings, 1:203. William H. Holmes, "Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans," Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1880 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1884) 185-305, post 302 Plate 76.
26 Jesse Walter Fewkes, Archeological Expedition to Arizona in 1895, Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Volume 17 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1898) 519-744 [681]. Zelia Nuttall, The Fundamental Principles of Old and New World Civilizations. A Comparative Research Based on a Study of the Ancient Mexican Religious, Sociological, and Calendrical Systems. Archaeological and Ethnological Papers Of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University. Vol. II. (Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, March, 1901) 131-132. Jesse Walter Fewkes, Two Summers' Work in Pueblo Ruins, Volume 22, Part 1, Issue 1 of the Annual Report, United States Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904) 156. Fewkes, Two Summers' Work in Pueblo Ruins, 154-155. Watson Smith and Steven A. LeBlanc, Kiva Mural Decorations at Awatovi and Kawaika-a: with a Survey of Other Wall Paintings in the Pueblo Southwest, Volume 37 of Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. Issue 5 of Reports of the Awatovi Expedition (Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 2006) 266, 455. Ekkehart Malotki and Donald Edgar Weaver, Stone Chisel and Yucca Brush: Colorado Plateau Rock Art (Walnut, California: Kiva Publishing, 2001) 164. Patterson, A Field Guide to Rock Art Symbols of the Greater Southwest, 146 s.v. "Mirror Images." Dennis Slifer, Kokopelli: the Magic, Mirth, and Mischief of an Ancient Symbol (Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 2007) 99.
27 Taken from a temple roof. Nuttall, The Fundamental Principles of Old and New World Civilizations, 116 Fig. 35e, 131-132.
28 This example comes from the altar of the Eagle Down Fraternity. H. Byron Earhart, Religious Traditions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan (New York: Harper-Collins, 1993) 348.
29 Middle Mississippi Valley. Lila Fundaburk and Mary Douglass Fundaburk Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands: The Southeastern Indians Art and Industries (Fairhope, Alabama: Southern Publications, 1957) Plate 51 left, column 1, row 6.

30 Mallery, Picture-Writing of the American Indians, 2:700, Fig. 1145. The picture above is an Ojibwe rendering of the dome of the sky with clouds hanging down below it. It is the inverted version of the Hopi design. Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States, 1:360, 1:371, No. 10 from Plate 51. Mallery, Picture-Writing of the American Indians, 2:700, Fig. 1146.
31 Mallery, Picture-Writing of the American Indians, 2:701, Fig. 1149.


§6. The Redhorn Raid.

1 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"155, Fig. 7.11.3.
2 The same conclusion was reached by Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"148, #3; 149, Fig. 7.5.
3 John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook #37, 1-70 [54-56].
4 Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," Notebook #37, 29-34.
5 Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," Notebook #37, 35-36.
6 Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," Notebook #37, 48-50.
7 Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," Notebook #37, 50-52.
8 Crow — Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 83. Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 91, 92, 93. Grandmother's Knife, "3. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 97, 98. Hidatsa — Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, 40.
9 This is seen among the Arikara — Alfred Morsette, "4. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup,"1:22-43 [40]; Lillian Brave, "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," 2:693-715 [715], where Long Teeth is the only one who can turn into an arrow.


§7. The Departure Scene.

0 From the works of George Catlin, see the flat, shield-like, target rattle being used by a Lakota medicine man, "Medicine Man, Performing His Mysteries over a Dying Man" (1832); and the target design with wavy lines coming from it on the shield of the Sauk chief Pash-ee-pa-hó, Little Stabbing Chief (1835).
1 Steponaitis, Knight, Lankford, Sharp, and Dye, "Iconography of the Thruston Tablet,"163.
2 Major Washington Matthews, Navajo Legends (Boston and New York: The American Folk-lore Society, Houghton-Mifflin, 1897) 112-113. Aileen O'Bryan, Navaho Indian Myths (New York: Dover Publications, 1993 [1956]) 79-80. These stories were collected by the author in 1928 from Old Man Buffalo Grass. Cf. this myth in a comparative context with the Hočąk (). The Tewa also have this episode. "29. The Tawa’e Visit the Sun," in Elsie Clews Parson, Tewa Tales, Memoirs of the American Folk-lore Society, vol. 19 (New York: American Folk-lore Society, 1926): 99. A similar test is found in Hopi mythology.

The Twins run to Sun, claiming him as their father, but he says, "Háki, háki (wait awhile)." Sun brought out his great pipe of turquoise, on the sides of which clouds are painted, and filled it with tobacco and, ramming it with a stick, he lit the pipe and gave it to Pyüükañ, and the Twins smoked it, passing it from one to the other. They swallow the smoke and by virtue of Spider woman's medicine the smoke appears in the sky as clouds.

Alexander M. Stephen, "Hopi Tales," The Journal of American Folklore, 42, #163 (Jan. - Mar., 1929): 1-72 [12].
3 q.v. "Children of the Sun," Notebook 12, 30-31.
4 q.v. "The Lost Blanket," Winnebago V, #2: 127-134.
5 Holmes, "The Thruston Tablet," 164.
6 Alice C. Fletcher, assisted by James R. Murie; music transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy, The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony. Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology, Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1900-01 (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) passim, with an illustration 40/41, Plate 87.
7 The illustration of the Wáwaⁿ pipe-wand is from James Owen Dorsey, Omaha Sociology. Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Third Annual Report, 1881-82 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1884) 205-370 [277 Fig. 20].
8 Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) ss. vv. Learner’s Dictionary, Hocąk–English/English–Hocąk, edd. Johannes Helmbrecht and Christian Lehmann. Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft, no. 21. 2d ed. (Erfurt: the Editors, May, 2006) s.v.
9 q.v. Alexander Longtail, "The Two Brothers, Waloga and Little Ghost," text with interlinear translation by James Owen Dorsey, 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago 3.3.2 (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, October and November, 1893) Story V, version 2: 16.
10 In "Children of the Sun" (q.v.), they both return to the lodge of the Sun; in "The Twins Visit Their Father, v. 3 (q.v.), they go into a hill south of La Crosse, but in "Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, v. 1" (q.v.), this hill is said to be at the eastern rim of the world.
11 q.v. "The Two Boys,"Winnebago V, # 2: 372-375.
12 Leading Sun, "41. Long-Tooth-Boy," in Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology, 495
13 Hočįčįnįknąka hįké mą́xiéja hahírenigają-héregi, žegųregi wažą́ hošišík čųną́. Longtail, "The Two Brothers," Story V, version 2: 16.
14 Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men, Volume 36 of the Annual Report, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1921) 102 ℓℓ. 8-16, 324 (text), 488 (literal translation) = Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 241 ℓℓ. 8-16.