A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga

from the collection of W. C. McKern


Original manuscript pages: | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 |


(108) A man fasted four days and four nights at a lake before a spirit came. For four nights he heard the spirit beating the drum and singing. These were the songs that were to go with the medicine. So the spirit acquainted him with the songs to go with the medicine to be found in his body. All these songs the man learned. A Waterspirit appeared before the faster and appointed a day for a summer meeting. This spirit asked for some tobacco, white deer skin, a dog, and red feathers (eagle down) on that day of their second meeting. This kind of present they called ną́piroxač (sacrifice). That is the beginning of this medicine. The spirit then would give him this medicine. The spirit said to the man, "You should make a knife of red cedar. With this shall you slay the great Waterspirit. This is the only weapon with which you may kill him." The spirit appointed a certain lake or river as a meeting place. The day was to be nice and clear and still, and the Indian was to be there, with the sacrifice, awaiting the spirit.

When that day came, the lake began to be disturbed, although there was no wind. This was from the power of the spirits. First came Waíxira spirits. They wait on the Waterspirit. Then a piece of flaming wood rose from the center. (109) Then all kinds of large snakes came up. These all went down again. Then the other spirits appeared. These came to see if there was a chance of a hunter (Thunderbird) being somewhere about. These two are enemies, the Waterspirits and the Thunderbirds. These [scouting] spirits are the Waíxki, Beaver Waterspirits (Rap Wágᵋčexi), Elk Waterspirits (Hųwą́gᵋčexi), and Deer Waterspirits (Ča Wágᵋčexi). These underground spirits looked above to see if there were any clouds (signs of Thunderbirds), then went below to inform the great Waterspriit that all was clear. They told him to come up. Then that spirit appeared to the man, and instructed him on how to kill him. He explained what part of his body to remove for the medicine. He explained how to take it out. If any mistake should be made, the body would change to stone and could not be cut. So great care must be taken to follow the instructions exactly. (110) He should take some bones, blood, heart and some of all parts of his body. He asked the spirit for what and how this medicine could be used. So they spoke, face to face.

He took out the blood and when he placed it away, it became red paint to be used as medicine, according to the spirit's directions. So with the other parts of his body, as they were taken out and placed to one side (on a white deer skin), they took the form of the medicine promised. There were many kinds of medicines besides the red paint. All were taken from certain parts of the spirit's body. This kind of dream, as well as the man having the dream, is called wažą́ hačá. The man saw the spirit with his own eyes, and this made him healthy and gave him a long life in this world. This also gave him (111) wealth and worldly goods. He was given all these medicines with which to cure the sickness and disease of his generation. He derived his benefit from the vision of the spirit, and the medicines were for the use of his grandchildren. Even to this day, some of these medicines remain and are potent when properly used. No museum ever has obtained any of these medicines. No Winnebago would sell any of these medicines for any price. They are holy medicines.

The man's name was Mąnį́xete’ų́ga. This is one of the men who had a dream like this. This was the last man to see this spirit. Many others before him had this dream. He was the man who obtained the help of the French when the Illinois and their allies were determined to wipe out the Winnebago. This man could change into an otter and swim under water because he had had the Waterspirit dream. Thus he swam to the French fort and warned them of the danger to the Winnebago.

Waterspirit medicines were all beneficial. The medicine given by the other lesser spirits might be beneficial or evil medicines, either one. So it is explained what the different medicines should be used for. After he removed all (112) the medicine from the body as instructed, he was then ordered to return home. Then he was to put up a one night feast on behalf of the spirits and the medicines (Mąką́wohą). Then the medicines were divided up and placed in bags. When he arrived home, during his feast, he sang the songs which he dreamed and which he was to use with the medicines. Still today these songs are used. Some are even used by the Ojibway and Menomini. Those medicines originating from this spirit included the following one, Nąsuhimąháp. This was to defend against the following kind of magic. A woman might take a man's hair and place it in a certain evil medicine, and keep it there. He was then under her control. He then had had headaches. This was cured by placing some of the medicine named above in an open cut in his scalp. A certain set of songs went with this treatment. Nąsuhimąháp was obtained from the ground bones of the spirit. There is another of these medicines. When leaving a village to camp out while hunting, in case they have poor luck, they gave tobacco to the old man who had seen a Waterspirit and asked him to intercede. He placed tobacco in the fire and put up an overnight feast (Waną́čĕrehí). After that, they would meet with good success.1


Commentary."a man fasted ... the man learned" — this has been inserted from p. 110, where it is set off with the instructions, "(Insert where belongs)."

"the spirit ... you may kill him" — this has been inserted from p. 109, where it is set off with the instructions, "(Insert where belongs; time of dream.)."

"ną́piroxač" — under ną́biruǧáč, Miner says that it is specifically, "to sacrifice something sacred by throwing it into the woods."

 

"red cedar" — red cedar (juniper), known as waxšúč, is a sacred tree, whose smoking leaves are used to make a purifying incense. However, it is especially sacred to the Thunderbirds, who wear upon their (bald) heads a wreath of juniper. Using it to cut open a Waterspirit may recognize the injurious power of the Thunders, or it may simply be a case of using the most sacred utensil available for the rite.

"Waíxira" & "Waíxki" — these forms are for Waíxgi, which is a short form of Waíxgiwani, "attendant beings around the main one"; cf. Waixgi-nąka, "the lookouts." They are said to be three sorts of Waterspirits: Beaver, Elk, and Deer. This means that the Waterspirits in question have attributes of each of these animals, in the case of the latter two, probably their horns.

"change to stone" — stone is in many ways the opposite of water: it is impenetrable, fixed in shape, hard, unmoving, uningestable, dry, and does not evaporate. The idea that a Waterspirit's body could change into stone has not hitherto been encountered.

"wažą́ hačá" — this means, "something seen, one who sees something."

"Mąnį́xete’ų́ga" — this means, "Does Great Walking." It is highly likely that this is the same person known elsewhere as "Great Walker" (Mąnįxetega).

"all beneficial" — this is a decidedly minority view. The name Wakčexi means, "the difficult ones." In other stories the medicines derived from a Waterspirit's body are often used for poisons and black magic.

"a one night feast" — McKern adds parenthetically, "This feast belongs to the Medicine Lodge."

"Nąsuhimąháp" — this is analyzed by McKern as, nąsú, "head"; himąháp, "cutting open." Cf. mąháp, "to cut open (as in surgery)" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann). Marino has, nąsu-imąhap, "head medicine."

"waną́čĕrehí" — this means to do the wanąčére, which Radin explains as, "concentration of the mind; the name of a ceremony conducted in a specially built lodge that consisted of a food offering designed to seduce the object of the hunt (bear, deer, raccoon) to surrender his life to the hunter." This is from, wa-, "them"; nąč, "to appease, satisfy, fill (with food)"; heré, "the time or place for which" — "the time at which to satisfy them with food." McKern gives its meaning as, "wishing for this."

On the next page (113), McKern has an extended comment upon the use of some Waterspirit medicines.

When the Winnebago go to a different tribe of Indians, before arriving among the other people, they would give tobacco to one of these same Waterspirit dreamers, and he would hold a Waną́čĕrehí Feast like the one described in the preceding paragraph, with the result that they would receive good hospitality and many fine presents from those to be visited. However, there were no medicine, just certain songs and rituals. When they got to the other tribe of Indians, the Waterspirit dreamer would paint his face with the red paint from the Waterspirit and when they came to meet the other people and dance a Friendship Dance (Herúska Waší), then he would get Indian goods from the other tribe due to this medicine. This is called rokíkĕrĕ. This was the established faith. These medicines can be handed down from ancestors, from either the father or from the maternal uncle, who got them in a dream. The original dreamer would teach one under him to use the medicine after he was gone. He would return use of the medicines for presents, like a shaman.


Comparative Material. ...


Links: Waterspirits, Thunderbirds, Otters, Snakes, Spirits (Waxop’ini), Tobacco, Supernatural and Spiritual Power.


Stories: about Great Walker (= Mąnį́xete’ų́ga?): Great Walker's Warpath, Great Walker's Medicine, Great Walker and the Ojibwe Witches; in which Waterspirits occur as characters: Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Lost Child, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, Bluehorn's Nephews, Holy One and His Brother, The Seer, The Nannyberry Picker, The Creation of the World (vv. 1, 4), Šųgepaga, The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet, The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound, The Diving Contest, The Lost Blanket, Redhorn's Sons, The Phantom Woman, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Great Walker's Warpath, White Thunder's Warpath, The Descent of the Drum, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2), The Two Children, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Waruǧápara, Ocean Duck, The Twin Sisters, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The King Bird, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Heną́ga and Star Girl, Peace of Mind Regained, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Grandmother, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Shaggy Man, The Woman who Married a Snake (?), Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Sacred Lake, Lost Lake; about (false) Elk Waterspirits: The Diving Contest, The Elk's Skull; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; about fasting blessings: Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Difficult Blessing, The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Seer, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Great Walker's Medicine, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, Holy Song, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Blessing of Šokeboka, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Sweetened Drink Song, Ancient Blessing; about the (post-Columbian) history of the Hočągara: The Cosmic Ages of the Hočągara, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, Annihilation of the Hočągara II, First Contact, Origin of the Decorah Family, The Glory of the Morning, The First Fox and Sauk War, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Masaxe War, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, Great Walker's Medicine, Great Walker's Warpath, The Chief Who Shot His Own Daughter, How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, The Spanish Fight, The Man who Fought against Forty, The Origin of Big Canoe's Name, Jarrot's Aborted Raid, They Owe a Bullet, Origin of the Name "Milwaukee," Origin of the Hočąk Name for "Chicago"; mentioning the French: Introduction, The Fox-Hočąk War, First Contact, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I (v. 2), How Jarrot Got His Name, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e, The Cosmic Ages of the Hočągara, Turtle and the Merchant; mentioning the Ojibwe (Chippewa, Ojibway): White Fisher, White Thunder's Warpath, Great Walker and the Ojibwe Witches, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, The Annihilation of the Hočągara II, The First Fox and Sauk War, First Contact (vv. 2-3), Introduction; mentioning the Illinois (Illini): The Annihilation of the Hočągara I (v. 2), Gatschet's Hočank hit’e (St. Peet ...), Introduction; mentioning the Menominee: Origin of the Name "Winnebago" (Menominee), The Hočąk Arrival Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 2b) (Origins of the Menominee), The Fox-Hočąk War, First Contact, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I (v. 2), Annihilation of the Hočągara II, Two Roads to Spiritland, The Two Children, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e (Extracts ...), Introduction; mentioning otters: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Fleetfooted Man, The Dipper, The Two Children, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Woman who Loved Her Half Brother, The Chief of the Heroka, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Wojijé, Holy Song II, Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning dog sacrifice: Wolf Clan Origin Myth (v. 5), Redhorn's Sons, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, see also Wolf & Dog Spirits; mentioning snakes: The First Snakes, The Woman who Married a Snake, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Snake Clan Origins, The Omahas who turned into Snakes, A Snake Song Origin Myth, The Serpents of Trempealeau, Rattlesnake Ledge, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, Wears White Feather on His Head, Creation of the World (vv. 2, 3, 4), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Waruǧápara, The Green Man, Holy One and His Brother, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Turtle and the Merchant, The Lost Blanket, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth; mentioning tobacco: Tobacco Origin Myth, Hare and the Grasshoppers, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth (v 2), How the Thunders Met the Nights, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Grandmother's Gifts, The Thunderbird, First Contact, Peace of Mind Regained, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, The Dipper, The Masaxe War, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store; mentioning red feathers (as an offering to the spirits): The Red Feather, Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 4), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Elk's Skull, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Great Walker's Medicine, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Twins Visit Their Father's Village, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Were-fish (v. 1), Disease Giver; mentioning red cedar (juniper, waxšúč): The Journey to Spiritland (vv. 4, 5) (used to ascend to Spiritland), The Seer (sacrificial knife), Redhorn's Sons (coronet of Thunders, lodge), Aračgéga's Blessings (coronet of Thunders), The Twins Disobey Their Father (trees found on cliffs of Thunders), Partridge's Older Brother (smoke fatal to evil spirit), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (purifying smoke), The Creation Council (purifying smoke), The Dipper (incense), Sun and the Big Eater (arrow), The Brown Squirrel (arrow), Hare Kills a Man with a Cane (log used as weapon); mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed); mentioning drums: The Descent of the Drum, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Buffalo's Walk, The Spirit of Maple Bluff, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), Young Man Gambles Often, Trickster and the Dancers, Redhorn's Father, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Elk's Skull, Ghosts, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Great Walker's Medicine, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 1b), Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Trickster and the Geese, Turtle's Warparty, Snowshoe Strings, Ocean Duck, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Hog's Adventures, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts.


Themes: a person who fasts receives blessings from the spirits: The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, Redhorn's Sons, The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Seer, Maize Comes to the Hočągara, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Thunderbird, Lake Wąkšikhomįgra (Mendota): the Origin of Its Name, The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound, Great Walker's MedicineŠųgepaga, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, Heną́ga and Star Girl, A Man's Revenge, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Man who Defied Disease Giver, White Thunder's Warpath, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Diving Contest, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Holy Song, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Blessing of Šokeboka, The Completion Song Origin, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, Sunset Point, Song to Earthmaker, First Contact (v. 1), The Horse Spirit of Eagle Heights; a spirit is quoted as he gives someone a blessing: Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Great Walker's Medicine, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Completion Song Origin, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, The Difficult Blessing, The Blessing of Šokeboka, Bow Meets Disease Giver, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Sunset Point, The Rounded Wood Origin Myth, A Peyote Vision, The Healing Blessing; the war between Thunderbirds and Waterspirits: Traveler and the Thunderbird War, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Brave Man, The Lost Blanket, Ocean Duck, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Thunderbird, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Waruǧápara, Bluehorn's Nephewsa; many objects float to the surface of a lake just before a Waterspirit rises from the depths: The Seer, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth; as part of a blessing, a spirit orders the beneficiary to kill him and make magical use of his body: White Wolf, The Seer, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Elk's Skull; a Waterspirit is killed and his body is used as medicine: Great Walker's Warpath, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Seer; someone is blessed with a medicine: Fourth Universe, Great Walker's Medicine, Bow Meets Disease Giver, The Seven Maidens, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Seer, The Healing Blessing, A Weed's Blessing, A Snake Song Origin Myth, Young Man Gambles Often, The Origins of the Sore Eye Dance, The Elk's Skull, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, A Peyote Vision, The Sweetened Drink Song; a spirit blesses a man with knowledge of sacred songs: Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), Holy Song, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Island Weight Songs, A Snake Song Origin Myth, Song to Earthmaker, The Completion Song Origin, The Origins of the Nightspirit Starting Songs, The Sweetened Drink Song, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman; a human turns into a (spirit) animal: How the Thunders Met the Nights (Thunderbird), Waruǧápara (Thunderbird), The Dipper (hummingbird), Keramaniš’aka's Blessing (blackhawk, owl), Elk Clan Origin Myth (elk), Young Man Gambles Often (elk), Sun and the Big Eater (horse), The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Were-Grizzly, Partridge's Older Brother (bear), The Woman who Loved her Half-Brother (bear), Porcupine and His Brothers (bear), The Shaggy Man (bear), The Roaster (bear), Wazųka (bear), The Spotted Grizzly Man (bear), Brass and Red Bear Boy (bear, buffalo), White Wolf (dog, wolf), Worúxega (wolf, bird, snake), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (buffalo), The Brown Squirrel (squirrel), The Skunk Origin Myth (skunk), The Fleetfooted Man (otter, bird), The Diving Contest (Waterspirit), The Woman who Married a Snake (snake, Waterspirit), The Omahas who turned into Snakes (four-legged snakes), The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 3) (alligators), Snowshoe Strings (a frog), How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (v. 3) (earthworms), The Woman Who Became an Ant, Hare Kills a Man with a Cane (ant).


Notes

1 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 108-112.