Hočąk Vocabulary, ISIL 1880 Format


by Philip Longtail (?)
in collaboration with James Owen Dorsey (?)


The following vocabulary, at present, is not of much value, since it is difficult to interpret the transcription conventions without some kind of key. I reproduce an interpretation of it only because it may contain some words that are otherwise unknown; or it may actually represent a dialect of the language differing from the standard form with which we are now familiar. This is a very peculiar manuscript and often gives deviant forms for Hočąk words, and even appears to use more than one notation system simultaneously. Here are the special characters and the interpretation that I have given them:

MS c ch g h’ k kh k
x
l p
x
q sh sh
 x
t’ č tch t’ch x
Interpr. c č g h k’ k g r b gh c j t’ č č č x

The phonetic system used here is that of Radin (see Pronunciation). Strangely, many entries omit the vowels in one or more syllables. The default substitution seems to be 'i' (the Hočąk syllabary omits the vowel 'a' by default), but not in every case, judging from parallels in other word lists. In other cases, the letter 'i' is undotted, and 'e' is written in a way similar to an 'i' or like the Greek letter ε. The strange alternances between 'tch' ~ 'ch', 'š' ~ 'sh', etc., would suggest that words were supplied by different informants at different times, the phonetic conventions differing according to the source; yet the handwritting seems to be consistent throughout. Some of these oddities and difficulties can be seen in the following sample page:

Who was the author of this work? It was submitted to the Smithsoninan as one of Dorsey's papers, leading to the prima facie conclusion that the vocabulary was collected by Dorsey himself. There is little doubt that he initiated the project. However, did he write down the entries or even directly supervise this process? It would hardly seem so, given the oddities of the notational system used, a system not in consistent agreement with any that Dorsey is known to have used. There is one very strong piece of evidence that the whole was given to a Hočąk speaker who knew a fair amount of English and who was to write down both the Hočąk and English wordlists. The evidence in question is the occurance of a spelling error in the English word "grass," which is spelled "glass." The column in which it occurs is clearly written, so there is no confusion as to the orthography of the character 'l'. It hardly seems possible that Dorsey would misspell the word "grass," and if he had, it would hardly have been mispelled that way. It is in Hočąk that 'r' and 'l' alternate as representations of a single phoneme; it is to the Hočąk ear that "grass" and "glass" might sound alike. It appears, therefore, that the English list was dictated to a person of Hočąk speech who was delegated to fill in the Hočąk column as opportunity permitted. Clearly the Hočąk side of the list was written independently of the English column, as it is sometimes seen to have been written with a different pen, or to have been written hurredly and with abbreviations, all in marked contrast to the English side of the list, which was written down in a very deliberate manner lacking in signs of haste.


Table of Contents

Source of the Manuscript

The manuscript does not begin with a page one, but page 77. Numerous page numbers are omitted, although the manuscript seems complete.

Persons (77)

Body (78-81)

Dress and Ornament (82-83)

Dwellings (84-87)

An Oval Lodge (Graphic)
How a Lodge is Assembled (Graphic)

Implements and Utensils (88-89)

Implements, etc., Wooden Ware (90)

Implements, etc., Stone Implements (91)

An Adze (Graphic)

Implements, etc., Materials of Shell, Horn, Bone (92)

Implements, etc., Basket Ware (93) — No Entries

Food (95)

Colors (96)

Numerals, Cardinal Numerals (97-98)

Division of Time (105)

Animals (109)

Animals, Fish (122)

Animals, Fish, Parts of the body (123)

Animals, Insects (125)

Plants (127)

The Firmament (132-133)

Medicines (190)

New Words (192)

(Words) (unpaginated)


Persons

man wañg-rá
he is a human being wañg-ijá
he is a human being wañgcigijá
woman hinugijá
she is a human being hinugijá hatána
I saw a woman hinugija heréna
she is an unknown person, woman hinugija waunęk’cana
he is an old man wañgnunęgija
he is an unknown old man wañgnunęgija waunęk’cana
I saw an old man wañgnunęgija heréna
he is a young man hočįčįná
I saw a young man hočįčįná heréna
she is a young woman hinųk’nigja
virgin (young woman before she is married) hinųk’wačagija
a small boy, baby boy hočičixnunįgija
a small girl hinųk’xnunigija
infant nįk’čáx
baby nunįk’rá
male infant hočičixnunįk’-nik’čax
female infant nįk’čá-hinukxnunek’
twins (two-born child) warečįwarená
a married man hinųkinagija
married woman hinųkikinače
widower (wife is dead) hičéwerekh’it’ena
widow (husband is dead) hikinaregt’éna
old bachelor (he has never been married) hikigahinųk’khinanena
old maid (she has never been married) hikijahikinajanena
the old people wañgkixnerena
the young people tahekijará
a great talker hisegjahízererokinana
a silent person hikigahizezenena
thief hisegjáwamenug


Body (78-81)

head nasu
hair načara
crown of the head nasuherarugna
scalp nasuxra
face hixjara
forehead para
eye hixjasura
pupil of th eye hijjasuhogirera
eyelash hišjahena
eyebrow čixhina
ear načwara
external opening of the ear načwahopora
nose para
ridge of nose pahogcigra
nostril pahopaxra
cheek erora
beard enhina
mouth era
upper lip híxhihare
lower lip híxmaná
tooth hira
tongue razrá
saliva enena
throat wonahihopogra
chin hiraróra
neck či?cira
body rora
shoulder hinat’ara?
back nagra
breast of a man narawañgija
breast of a woman narahinugija
mammary hiunehara
nipples wasera
hip ragagrare
belly nexra
navel waračįwahonakina
arm aira
right arm aihocorora
left arm aihorigra
arm-pits aixk’ura
right arm above elbow aihocororaaihočira
left arm above the elbow aihorigracočira
elbow aicwara
right elbow aihocorora-aicwara
left elbow aihorigra-aicwara
right arm elbow aihocorera-aicwara
left arm elbow aihorigra-aicwara
wrist ozira
right wrist aihacorora-ozira
left wrist aihorigra-ozira
hand noñbra
right hand aihóšororanoñbra
left hand aihoregranoñbra
palm of hand numphigišgaja
back of hand nuñpnagi
fingers nuñphogizi?zi?nara
thumb t’ahehokejara ?
first finger cahičópra
second finger cahinoñpra
third finger cahitaninena
small finger cakhoxnunera
fingernail cak’ra
knuckle ozihošgra
leg rera
leg above the knee rehoxjara
knee hoporora
leg below the knee rehoxnunera
foot š’eara
sole of foot serogra
toe sešgra
large toe sešg-hoxjara
second toe sešg-hinoñpra
third toe sešg-hitaninina
fourth toe sec-hičópra
blood wagra
brain nasuragonoñp
bladder ho
heart načira
liver raxra
stomach aičora
rib ruhira
pulse wawag-hoč?apra
spine wag-horočoñna
footprint serawagra
skin xira
bone hicragra
intestines aičohomenara

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: upper eyelid, lower eyelid, earlobe, performations in the ear, septum of the nose, perforation of septum of nose, palate, adam's apple, rump, kneecap, calf of the knee, ankle, ankle bone, instep, heel, toenail, veins or arteries, caul, gall, kidney, lung, spleen, vertebrae.


Dress and Ornament (82-83)

cap senehiwognna
tunic wasapagwonaču or wonačiserečra
breech cloth t’eineworuhočra
breech cloth belt t’einaworehotchigpirara
pair of leggings wax’waguče
pair of moccasins wak’učinara
short petticoat wačci?p?neg
long petticoat watchsarejá
girdle hik’éperag
woman’s moccasins hinųk’wak’učą
garters howagcag
blanket wa-?-?na
robe of bear skin načowoik’a
robe of buffalo skin č’át’eiwaik’a
robe of deer skin čawahag?waik’a
robe of rabbit skin wacčawaik’a
robeof wildcat skin wešgcecu?waik’a
buckskin čawáharg
sheep skin čask’ihara
elk skin hu-unhar
rabbit skin wašišgwaik’a
beaver skin wačowaik’a
headdress of feathers maceuwokana
necklace of bone hojaragwanapk’
necklace of bird bills wanepahucragwanapk’
necklace of bird claws wanegsecešgwanapk’
necklace of bear claws načock’wainapk’
paint (black) sepharaherogk’we
paint (red) coš’ewaherogk’we
paint (yellow) zenraherogk’we
tattoo marks xirabok’egrest or bok’rex
pouch danurhocura or poųra
a ring nubhirusegra
bare head wasuroke-aunacaná
barefoot seroka
naked nanoka

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: toga, woman’s basket work cap, antelope skin, otter skin, fringe of skin, sinew, thread of sinew, thread of skin, necklace of shells.


Dwellings (84-87)

village činañkra
wigwam (perm dwelling) činara
doorway čirop’howä́ra
smokehole čirahahoxra or xihawararó
fireplace pahehowaš’ena
fire paerá
firewood napahiroč
blaze horaznananub
a light hadaš’ar
living coals auxneneaump
bead auxneča
ashes raxhočra
smoke xira
poker pahirawaxne
a seat homenara
the place where seats are homenarapačro hogra——
a post nabosar’č
my home čanawačija
the house is round činaraporoporono
only one door čiroropra hicigrana
about nine feet high sehijąkičǫckoñi’ hujackoñi
lodge (temporary dwelling) haručija
doorway čirop’howä́rá
mat woméšumra or sehiwocura
bed homįkra
these beds homįknara
this bed homįkšą́
post nabósárač
opening for window hirohúpikra
stairway hirojahowarera
ladder hirodara
a stone aunina
street naku(x?)ra
spring mąera
that spring mąejara
water nina
small field max(i)x(i)nunik

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: soot, lodge pole, lodge pin, a division of a pueblo, family compartments (set of rooms for family), give name of each room, floor, ceiling, wall, joist, lintel, wooden trap door, chimney, permanent seat (masonry), mortar, court, garden.


Describe dwelling: state how they are arrainged, &cet.


How a lodge is assembled:


Implements and Utensils (88-89)

bow of wood mačégra nara
bow string mačég waginara
arrow mawa
arrow feathers macunharorag
quiver mahocra
quiver strap mahoc wagnara or hegauna
wrist guard waxigoyhehisg?
warclub mamačwekiracena
war spear wakesa wocuna
fish spear howocuna
knife of stone enimahina
knife handle mahihira rugsela
canoe wačirá
canteen made of bladder wašučixnehoca
fish line hohigsèk wagnara
fish net hohigxi
fish hook hohigsegra
pipe of stone enečanehu
pipe stem of reed xiwetaninehunara
pipe stem of wood na tani’nehúrhunará

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: bow of horn, sinew on back of bow, not in end of arrow for bowstring, notch in end of arrow for arrowhead, arrow of stone, arrowhead chipper (made of horn), point of arrowhead, arrow shaft of reed, arrow shaft of wood, groove in arrow shaft, arrow shaft straightener (made of horn), arrow shaft polisher (made of stone), cement used in fastening arrowheads, shield, sling, net for catching rabbits, net for catching fish.


Implements, etc., Wooden Ware (90)

cup or dipper namacčegi
bread tray wasikhip
meat tray wau?kgra

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: bowl, nortar, pestle, fire drill.


Implements, etc., Stone Implements (91)

axe masera
adze wačihigituna
hoe racegrá
knife máhina
knife handle mahe hirahukuserá
knife paint ho p’oseji or hop’ehija
scraper wa
pestle, stone aunina

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: knife edge, borer, mealing stone, large; mealing stone, small; mortar.


Implements, etc., Materials of Shell, Horn, Bone (92)

horn reup
horn ladle (spoon) čámas’tgija

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: turtle back dish, tleshing [sic] implement of notch bone, dressing knife of bone.


Food (95)

food waručira
meal of corn wečsezra
cake waskib?skura
meat čira
soup wohuna
bread wasegpara
corn wečsezra
hominy wajapočib?čib?
mike čiwasenera
honey hasegra

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: meal of seeds, meal of grasshoppers, mush, stew, juice.

 


Colors (96)

black separa
blue čora
gray xi?či?ra
red šučira
sorrel či?wahagčutonana
white skana
yellow sezra

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: brown, green, purple, roan, scarlet, vermillion.

 


Numerals, Cardinal Numerals (97-98)

one hiją-kíra
two noñp
three tani
four čop
five sačą
six hakewé’
seven cagowį́
eight haruwųk’
nine hiją-kičǫ-čoñni’
ten kirepunaija
eleven kirepunaijanañgá hiją kirášaná
twelve kirepunaijanañgá noñpa-cana
thirteen kirepunaijanañgá daní cana
fourteen kirepunaijanañgá čop-cana
fifteen kirepunaijanañgá sačą́-cana
sixteen kirepunaijanañgá hakiwé’-cana
seventeen kirepunaijanañgá cagowį-cana
eighteen kirepunaijanañgá haruwųk’-cana
nineteen kirepunaijanañgá hiją kičǫ-čoñni’ha-cana
twenty kirepunainoñp
twenty-one kirepunainoñp nagi hiją kirá ha caná
twenty-two kirepunainoñp nagi noñp ha cana
twenty-three kirepunainoñp nagi daní ha cana
twenty-four kirepunainoñp nagi čop ha cana
twenty-five kirepunainoñp nagi sačą́ ha cana
twenty-six kirepunainoñp nagi hakiwé’ ha cana
twenty-seven kirepunainoñp nagi cagowį ha cana
twenty-eight kirepunainoñp nagi haruwųk’ ha cana
twenty-nine kirepunainoñp nagi hiją kičǫ-čoñni’ ha cana
thirty kherepunaidaní
forty kherepunaičóp
fifty kherepunaisačą
sixty kherepunaihakewé
seventy kherepunaicagowį́
eighty kherepunaihaluwųk’
ninety kherepunaihigąkičǫ
one hundred hogí hijá
one hundred one hogí hijá naga hijà khira
one hundred two hogí hijá naga noñp ha cana
one hundred three hogí hijá naga tani ha cana
one hundred four hogí hijá naga čop ha cana
one hundred five hogí hijá naga sačą ha cana
one hundred six hogí hijá naga hakewé ha cana
one hundred seven hogí hijá naga cagowį́ ha cana
one hundred eight hogí hijá naga haluwųk’ ha cana
one hundred nine hogí hijá naga hiją-kičǫ-čoñni’ ha cana
one hundred ten hogí hijá naga kirepunaija ha cana
one hundred eleven hogí hijá naga kirepunaijanañgá hiją kirá ha cana
one hundred twelve hogí hijá naga kirepunaijanañgá noñpa ha cana
two hundred hogí noñp
three hundred hogí tani
four hundred hogí čop
five hundred hogí sačą
six hundred hogí hakewé’
seven hundred hogí cagowį́
eight hundred hogí haruwųk’
nine hundred hogí hiją-kičǫ-čoñni’
one thousand hogi hijá xja
one half (in length) kiseg
a part (in quantity) kesknék
all hairaúč
some his’ke
none čášugne

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: one half (in quantity), a part (in length).

 


Division of Time (105)

a year macuna
a moon huháwera
day humbera
night húhana
a day (24 hrs.) humja-ai
sunrise wirahaxpahira
morning hinuxčinik
noon wiraročajna
afternoon wiraročajhaxna
sunset wirahirona
evening hoxjanenuk
midnight huhagsak
yesterday x(i)čanana
today humbeja-ä
tomorrow humigija

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: first half of moon, second half of moon, first quarter of moon, second quarter of moon, third quarter of moon, fourth quarter of moon, dawn, mid-forenoon, dusk, day before yesterday, day after tomorrow, new (adverb), past (time adverb), future time (adverb).

 


Animals (109)

bat pau(g)šišira
buffalo čaxčina
bear, grizzly mačora
cat, black weja sapara
dog cungra
deer č(a)ra
elk huwuna
fox wacagzra [Gatsch., wašérekesi]
fox, yellow wacagzina
fox, dark wacagz(i)sapagnesk
fox, red wacagz(i)ceučacuna
fox, gray wacagz(i)xnesk

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: armadillo, antelope, bison, bison, wood; beaver, badger, bear, cinnamon,; bear, black; caribou (woodland), caribou (barren ground), chipmunk, cat, wild; cat, civet; deer, mule (Rocky Mountains, and the west).

 


Animals, Fish (122)

fish hóra or hocun

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: catfish, crab.

 


Animals, Fish, Parts of the Body (123)

eye hicčora
liver číraxra
scales higra-an
to swim hirára

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: mouth, gills, breast-fin, belly-fin, back-fin, tail-fin, roe-fin, bladder, gall.

 


Animals, Insects (125)

ant rogkunaš’g
bedbug wagrecuji
bee haséra
bee (humble) čanag
butterfly mimigrá [minikera]
flea čakiresk
horse-fly (black) cuxjášuxjaseb’ (cuxja, "horse"; seb, "black")
mosquito rawankra

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: beetle, caterpillar, cricket, dragonfly, fly, gnat, grasshopper, katydid, locust, louse, maggot, prairie fly (green), snail, spider, tick, wasp (yellow), worm.

 


Plants (127)

leaf naupra
limb nahojakecara
outside bark naharo
inner bark na
stump napasera
root naaučara
wood nara
flowers x(i)wiwaxji
forest pačara
grass (spelled "glass") x(i)wina or x(i)wij(o)ra (jra, "green")

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: bud of tree, body or trunk, tree, brush, bushy, a flower, fruit.

 


The Firmament (132-133)

a cloud mąxra
sun wira
moon huhawira
half moon huhawiragska
stars wirakošgra
rainbow wipamąk’erera
snow wara
ice nuxra
water nina
wave jašjana
current nihosegra
overflow hauhijacaná
rain nicuna
thunder gonak’ecaná
lightning jajapnacaná
wind mątajahi
east wind wihaxap-hurag mątajahihuhijana
west wind wihorag mątajahihujana
the ground mąna
mud mąhará
salt nicura
rock (large) enexjaxja
stone enena
earthquake mąnahixgna
shower naxragra
storm hiskja-hañpra c(i)c(i)g(a) ("bad day")
morning star hunenag wirak’oš’gra

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: clouds, the; sky, horizon, full moon, fog, frost, hail, icicle, tide, dust, sand.

 


Medicines (190)

a sick man wañgijá’ howa’ja’na’
a sick woman hinugijá’ howa’ja’na’
a blind man wañgra hijčaranęcanąna
a blind woman hinugija hijčaranęcanana
a blind boy hočįčįníkra hijčaranęcanana
a blind girl hunuknekra hijčaranęcanana
a deaf man wañgra nuxraneg
a deaf woman hinugra nuxraneg
a deaf boy hočįčįnikra nuxraneg
a deaf girl hinuknekra nuxraneg
breath honehara
sweat hodag(-)g(-)daí
blood waera
medicine mągu?na
a medicine man wañgmągneja
a medicine woman hinugmągneja
medicine dance magauwa’cnacanána
medicine songs magnenawą

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: a lame nam, a lame woman, a lame boy, a lame girl, medicine lodge, sweat house, a dream.

 


New Words (192)

horse j(u)x(ą)jara
colt j(u)x(ą)jara negnegra
mule j(u)x(ą)jara najawa’xjara
bull čewąknunįk’
ox čewa’rut’a’
cow čehinug
calf čexnuneg
cat wijuk’
kitten wijuk’nįk’
cock waba’háǧe’
hen waba’háǧe’ hinug

English words for which no Hočąk equivalents were given: live stock, sheep hog, goose, saddle, bridel, girth.

 


(Words)

Dated, June 1, 1900

yes hojá
stood jejé or nacu
suddenly čúni
all hanauč
morning hai’ninégi
and éke
where hačį’je
what čáku
again jigé
at the door čirópeja
eldest son kunuga
we will go hiné kšawi na
long séreč
fight kiza
almost čowé
Earth maker Mąųra
to work ware
every day hañp ká
oxen čéra
put yoke on them wa’iške škúni
up stairs či wank’ča
again ciké
at one time hakoreją
his wife hičáwįra
married man hinų́k kunagija

On a separate sheet:

cock waha’háǧge’
bull čewąknunįn’
kitten wijuk’honunįk’
hog x(i)koghgoišé
I give you de’egh-honįkuna’
stick nąksigrá’

On another separate sheet:

married man hinųk kunagiga
Walking Day Hoñp-be-manira

At the top of the page (page 98):

Blue Ridge Orǫ’hia’eñ

On a letter head reading:

ADDRESS: "STEAMER OCCOQUAN."

Occoquan, Va. 189_

To - Str. OCCOQUAN, - Dr.

mąna’ ground
mąhará’ mud
xerá’ mountain, & hill
xe’héte’ mountain, large
xehononįk hill
xe’hopox hole in mountain
mą’hopox’rá’ hole in ground
mąnąkajéna’ thou art digging in the ground

This is in a different handwritting from the rest of the manuscript. It is not in Radin's hand, but probably in Dorsey's.


Source

James Owen Dorsey, Winnebago Vocabularies Written by Philip Longtail [?], numbered according to ISIL 1880, Manuscript 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago (3.3.2) 320 [old no. 1239] (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, n.d.) complete: 77-192.