Kųnų's Warpath (§2 of the Redhorn Cycle)

Paul Radin's Text

(118) The next morning, very early, someone came running, shouting, "Ho! ho! He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings, Red Horn, you and your brother Kųnų are invited to go on a warpath." "All right." Then Red Horn said, "Hand me a dish." As soon as one had been given him, he stood with his legs spread out and holding the dish in his hands said, "Dish, enlarge yourself!" Then he threw it between his feet and it became larger. Again he said "Dish, enlarge yourself!" Four times he said this and holding it on its edge he threw it between his legs. Each time it became larger. After the fourth time it just fitted in between his legs, spread out at their farthest. Then said Kųnų, "Oh, what a nice dish you have, little brother! Would it be possible for you to enlarge mine?" But the little brother said, "You saw me do it. Why don't you do it for your self?" Then Kųnų said, "Very well, give me a dish," and one was given to him. He spread his legs even farther apart than his brother had done and holding it in both hands said four times, "Dish, enlarge yourself!" However he struck a stone that happened to be there and he broke the dish in two. "Oh my!" he exclaimed, "I have spoiled my dish." "Hand it here, I will fix it for you," said Red Horn. "Take another plate," said Kųnų, but the little brother said, "No, I will fix it for you as it is." And holding the broken pieces together he spread out his legs and threw them on the ground between his legs, saying four times, "Dish, enlarge yourself!" and the dish became larger. Four times he did this and finally he had a dish nearly as large as that which he had made for himself.

Then Kųnų said, "Little brother, let me carry the dishes." So with Kųnų carrying the dishes they started out, the two younger brothers next to Red Horn, following.

Kųnų said, "You two had better not go. You were not invited." "We do not have to go to the place where you are having a feast. We just want to go and see the people," they replied, and so they were allowed to come along. When they arrived at the appointed meeting-place, they heard someone singing in the lodge and they went in. The lodge was already full of guests. "Ho! He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings has come. Clear a place for him in the center of the lodge," they said. Having made a place in the center of the lodge, the host began talking, saying, "Warriors, I know that I am raising unjustifiable expectations in your minds but I am going on a hunt and therefore have had my nephews get me a few squirrels for a feast. They have just put them on to cook. (119)

I wish the choicest pieces to be given to He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings, Red Horn."1 "Very well," Red Horn said. Then the host repeated the same to Otter and to Turtle. The others were all given ordinary portions of the food.

Then the host said, "Sons of warrior, I greet you. When you are ready, you may all begin the Fast Eating Contest to see who can finish first." Saying this he blew his flute as the signal for them to start. Red Horn finished first, Wolf second, Otter third, and Turtle last. Turtle said, "I thought you were going to do this, so I took my time and ate it all. You have allowed one man to escape."2 Then the host rose and spoke again. "Now this is all. Doubtless some of you are very busy just now. However, in four days, I intend either to go on the warpath or to go hunting. If any of you wish to go along, you have plenty of time to make moccasins for yourselves."3 So he spoke and departed.

In four days they started on the warpath. The first night they camped just outside the village. The leader called for someone to go and obtain food. The first one he thus called upon was He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings. "It is good," said the latter. Then the leader called upon Wolf and said, "Otter will start from one side and Turtle from the other." They both said, "Very well." Now Turtle, not being very good at hunting, demurred and said, "I shall send the small turtle in my place. He always kills large bears." So off went small turtle.

Very soon they heard someone from the other side of the camp saying, "There! there! Go over there, and I will give you a smoke. Whoever it was seemed to be saying this as he was walking along. Then the war-leader said, "Go over there and shoot the one talking." So they went over and killed it. It was a bear. From the other side of the camp someone approached again saying the same thing. Again the leader said, "Go and shoot it." And they did. Then from the third side of the camp Otter came saying he heard the same thing. The leader spoke again, "Go over there and shoot it." And they did. During all this time Turtle was absent. Finally they heard him shout. Then the war-leader said, "Turtle, go over there and shoot it." But when they got there they met Turtle returning all alone. "Well?" they said to him, and Turtle replied, "There is someone in the cave." So they went over to see and, sure enough, they found a very large bear, larger than those that had been killed by the others.

The next morning they again started out and about evening they again camped. Once more the leader called for someone to obtain food for the night and once again Turtle told one of the small turtles to go in his place. All four did the same thing they had done the evening before. The next morning they went on their way again and when evening overtook them they camped again and the same thing happened as on the previous night. The fourth night, when they were camping, the leader called for some scalps,4 and said he wished to obtain four people, that is, two specific couples. These couples were newly married and so fond of one another that they left the village in order to be alone. "I am going to call on Storms-as-he-walks, a thunderbird, and He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings or Red Horn, to go and see where they are. These (120) two are to go together." "Very well," they said and they went. Storms-as-he-walks was a nephew of the leader, both having come from the home of the thunderbirds. On the way, Storms-as-he-walks said, "My friend, if you were like me, we could travel in the clouds." "But, my friend," answered Red Horn, "we can do it anyway even if I am not a Thunderbird." "Very well," said the other, "it is good." Thereupon they both travelled in the clouds. As they walked, a drizzling rain began to fall all around them. "Come, let us camp," said those that were being hunted, "it is raining." The scouts alighted on the earth just beyond them and then returned to their own lodge. There they told the leader that those whom they were to kill had been seen and that they did not seem to be expecting any harm. Then the leader replied, "All right; that is good."

"As soon as dawn approaches, we shall make ready for the attack," said the leader, "but be on guard against Turtle for he is very tricky." At dawn they started. Once more they were warned, "Keep close watch on Turtle because he is very tricky." As expected, very soon after, Turtle said, "Boys, I want very badly to go out. I shall turn aside here." Thus he spoke and they replied, "Very well, go on." Not long after they said, "Where is Turtle?" But he was nowhere to be found so they said, "Let us make the rush." Then the war-whoop was given and they made the rush. Very soon after, Storms-as-he-walks gave the first victory cry, and shouted, "Sons of War!"5 Then He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings gave the second victory cry and Wolf gave the third, and Otter the fourth. The others were then permitted to strike the dead one, as they came along, until all had done so.6 When it was all over, along came Turtle. "I wish those cowards had defended themselves," he said, "so that I might have reached here in time."

The victors went home and when they came near the village, they chose one of their number to break the news to their relatives and to make preparations for the Victory Dance.7 So the one chosen went on home crying, "Storms-as-he-walks is killed! Red Horn is killed! Wolf is killed! Otter is killed!"8 All the old men of the village looked ashamed and despondent and said, "The ones we depended upon are lost!" Just then the warriors gave the victory war-whoop and began to circle around the village. Those who had been reported dead were in the lead, and the whole village began circling around them in joyfulness. The war-party finally came to the place prepared for the Victory Dance and began to dance. Many times did they dance. During the dancing the girls nudged Red Horn and all seemed very much smitten with him but he refused to pay any attention to them at all. For four days they danced and then they went home.9

Kųnų went home with his brother but a woman followed them. Red Horn was the one she was after. He said to his next older brother, "You had better marry her for I am not old enough to get married yet." This one then said the same thing to the brother next in age to him. And so it went until the woman was offered to the second oldest brother, and he said, "Very well, I'll marry her." (121)

Four days after this, a man came into the lodge again and said, "He-who-wears- human-heads-as-earrings, Red Horn, you and Kųnų are invited to join a war path." So the next morning, Kųnų packed the dishes on his back and they all went to the designated place. When they arrived there, they went straight to the place where they had heard singing. The same man was giving the feast and the proceedings were the same as they had been the last time. Finally the host said, "In four days I am going on the warpath. If anyone wishes to come along, he has four days in which to prepare his moccasins." Then they all went home and in four days they came back. They pitched their camp just outside the village the first night. Again, as before, the same people were called on to hunt for food and everything was carried on in exactly the same way.10 The bears were driven to camp and shot by the people, and Turtle again found a great bear. Six nights they camped and soon they approached the place where the victims were.

Then the war-leader called for scouts and Storms-as-he-walks and Red Horn were again selected. During their scouting they walked in the clouds and in their walking they caused a light rain to fall upon the earth. On they went until they came to a place just above the ground that the victims had selected in order to prepare a shelter against the rain. Then they returned to their camp and said, "War-leader, the ones you have come after do not seem to be suspecting any harm." "Very well, it is good," said the war-leader. Then again they told one another to watch Turtle closely and at dawn they started for their victims. "Watch Turtle, he is very tricky," they said. As expected, he asked to go out but they did not let him. Twice did he want to go out but they would not allow it. Suddenly they said, "Where is Turtle?" He was nowhere to be found. "Come, it is time to start," they said and gave the war-whoop and made the rush upon their enemies. Very soon Storms-as-he-walks had killed one of the enemy. Then Red Horn, Wolf and Otter did the same. Again Turtle was left without a war-honor. "Cowards," he said, "I wish they had tried to defend themselves."

Then they returned to their home. When they were near home they sent a messenger who sent up a wail, telling the people the same thing that they had been told on the first occasion. Secretly, however, he told several people to prepare a place for the Victory Dance. Again the old men acted as though they were ashamed and despondent. When they were near the village the warriors gave the victory war-whoop. They all marched into the village, the four victors in the lead. For four days they danced. Then the brothers of He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings were told to bring all their possessions to the village.

Within four days they were again invited to a feast and by the same man. They acted just as they had done before. The host again declared that he was to go on the warpath in four days. This time they camped eight days and they were to capture eight people. When they returned home they again danced four days. By this time all the women were teasing11 He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings. But he never paid any attention to them.a

Radin's Notes to the Text

1 This is clearly a warbundle feast which is being described here. By squirrels is meant deer or bear. The choicest pieces are always given to noted warriors.
2 It was believed that the leader of a warparty was told during his special fast the exact number of people he was going to capture and kill. The speed with which the food was consumed at the fast-eating contest deter mined whether any enemy predestined to be captured and killed would escape or not. Turtle is referring to this latter belief here and, of course, also trying to justify his being last.
3 That is, have them made for you by the women. Men did not make them.
4 That is, he indicated the number of scalps that were to be taken. First, however, scouts had to be sent out to reconnoitre. The two sent for this purpose are Storms-as-he-walks and Red Horn.
5 Indicating that he had scalped an enemy and obtained the first war honor.
6 If possible every person in a warparty is allowed to do this although only the actual scalping and the three individuals who strike the dead enemy first, obtain war honors.
7 The main ceremony after the return of a successful warparty.
8 Cf. for this and other war rituals my monograph on the Winnebago (37th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1923) 156ff.; 427-550.
9 Cf. above reference.
10 In an absolutely correct version the narrator would, of course, not have been permitted to summarize things in this fashion.
11 This is permitted only between wife and husband and sisters-in-law or between specified blood relations.

Commentary: "dish" — in other words, this is the dish that Redhorn will use in the Fast Eating Contest (Waruc-sak). The food itself represents the enemy that have been given to the victor by the spirits who rule over war, which is to say, the number that they would be destined to kill, all things being equal (which they often are not). This likens the enemy to food, which is to say, game animals. This is the same theory that underlies the practice of cannibalism. Unlike the cannibalism practiced elsewhere in the world, where the victim is consumed to acquire the virtues associated with his body parts, as courage with the heart, swiftness with the legs, etc., that practiced by the tribes of the upper Midwest did not send the now "politically correct" message, "we admire you," but the opposite: "we consider you to be nothing more than game animals (timid deer)." For another example of this attitude, see The Fox-Hocąk War.

"enlarge" — a very large dish would suggest that the amount of food placed on it would be greater than that of other competitors. Since the food represents the enemy given over to him by the spirits, a very large dish implies that the spirit will give over to him a very large number of men, or perhaps men of very high status.

"his feet" — there is more than one metaphor for killing the enemy. The one appropriate to the Fast Eating Contest is swallowing them, which has overtones of cannibalism. The other metaphor of conquest is trampling down under foot. We see this in "How the Hills and Valleys were Formed," where the Thunders are said to have created the hills and valleys by trampling down the earth with their feet. The hills and valleys are status differentials, and reflect the fact that the Thunder Clan is the chief clan. The metaphor of feet here draws the association of victory with trampling underfoot.

"it just fitted in between his legs, spread out at their farthest" — there actually exists a phrase used in an historical myth that expresses the idea of reaching the end of the warpath: "whenever I reach the end of the dish" (s'ahújaip'àregi wasgéra). Radin actually translates this phrase as, "at the end of the path, I see my enemy." The word wasgera, of course, is the standard word for "dish." When Chief Cap’ósgaga organized a warparty against the Fox, he first performed this feast,

Then they put on the kettles there. When it was cooked, they went as feast messengers and very many arrived coming to feast. And when the feasters had finished, he said, "I am going on the warpath. Whenever I reach the end of the dish, right away I jump up and start after them to do it to them. And our Grandfathers, the War Controllers (Wonáǧire Rukónona), obtained them for me. I shall have the pleasure of doing it to ten men. I am going after ten chiefs." Near the door he indicated what would be the stopping place. He put the Warbundle across the entrance and jumped over it. And to do it to them he carried the Warbundle himself.b

([Here-]gigire, "to do it," is a euphemism for killing.) Here we see the warpath itself likened to the dish, and his walking to its end is the same as reaching the end of the dish. So Redhorn's dish being expanded to his pace length indicates that it's contents are those to be gotten at the end of the warpath. So his warpath will encompass the taking of all the enemy held in his dish. The jumping over the Warbundle may be understood on a similar model. Radin says, "It was always customary for the leader to do this."c The stepping is the progress of the warpath, so stepping over the Warbundle would seem to mean that the Warbundle's power will be identical with the warleader's power on it; in other words, that the Warbundle will be efficacious on the warpath about to be undertaken. So when Redhorn makes his dish exactly the length of his pace, he symbolizes the fact that his warpath will encompass all that the dish contains, which is to say, it will result in the taking of all the many enemies allotted to him.

"the choicest pieces" — the best cuts are always given to the most prominent warriors at any feast. This is the equivalent to the Irish "Champion's Portion."

"finished first" — one would think, with Turtle, that thoroughness might be more important. However, in ambush warfare it is the speed of the attack, the old form of blitzkrieg, that determined the efficiency of the raid. In a sudden and swift attack, the enemy is caught unaware and unprepared, usually without his weapons. This allows him to be easily shot down or clubbed. If the attack is not carried off in this fashion, the added time will allow the enemy to get their weapons, and the result will be a more even match. Any casualties taken on the warpath were considered to have resulted from the incompetence of the warleader, who is expected to have thoroughly researched the raid, and to have done all the necessary things to gain the support of the spirits in pulling it off. So it was absolutely essential to conduct a swift and lethal attack. It should be noted that any escaping enemies from such a raid would go to the main village and gather a pursuit party, thus putting the whole enterprise at grave risk and even posing a danger to the home village whence the warparty departed. Thus, the speed of eating, inasmuch as it symbolizes the quickness of the attack, is the key to total victory.

"to go on the warpath or to go hunting" — another affirmation of the equivalence of killing the enemy with the killing of game animals.

"go over there, and I will give you a smoke" — the little turtle is seducing the bear to expose himself by offering him tobacco, which the spirits themselves cannot resist.

"scalps" — it's a pity that we do not have the original Hocąk text. Radin often translated the word for heads (nasura) as "scalps," but in all texts otherwise the practice engaged in is head hunting and not scalping.

"he wished" — this knowledge will hav been attributed to the warleader's "vision." The warleader is expected to go out in the wilderness and "cry to the spirits" for a blessing. The theory is that the suppliant makes himself pitiable by blackening his face as if in mourning and crying as if in distress. This will induce pity in the spirits who will bless him with powers to compensate him for his inherent human weakness and the tragedy of mortality. Here, of course, the suppliant is appealing especially to those spirits who can dispense war powers and who can give him a vision in which he clearly sees his warpath and even how many of the enemy he will be destined to claim. In reality, good warleaders disappear into the wilderness not just to cry to the spirits, but to undertake a thorough scouting expedition where they find out all of these details in the most empirical fashion. The spirits help those who help themselves first.

"two" — two couples makes four individuals in total. The number four is the number of totality and completeness (see below). The myth is therefore saying that they raided a group of the right size, a complete group, rather than some number that can be taken as precise and literal.

"these couples were newly married" — at first it seems like gratuitous brutality to attack newlyweds camped outside the main village during their "honeymoon," but the thought here is that no one on earth would resist with more fanaticism in defence of their loved ones. Thus, they would be the most formidable foes, not the weakest and most vulnerable.

"I am not a Thunderbird" — this is one of the most important statements made in the Redhorn Cycle, since it makes it crystal clear that Redhorn is not a Thunderbird. Oliver LaMère says that he is, but the evidence is overwhelmingly against it (see Gottschall Debate and Discussion). Most archaeologists writing on the subject of Redhorn and his possible SECC predecessors, seem to be convinced that he is a Thunderbird. He is able to travel in the sky because he is a star, probably Alnilam in the center of the Belt of Orion (see Įcorúšika and His Brothers).

"Sons of War" — this looks as if it were the old warcry of the Hocąk nation. In Hocąk this would be, Wonąǧire Hinįkra!

"to strike the dead one" — normally, touching a dead enemy takes precedence over killing him. This is because most killing is done at a distance with arrows, so that it is more dangerous to actually touch a dead enemy whose body his comrades are trying to recover. This is much the same as what we see in the Iliad. However, in this case, the killing was apparently done with clubs, so that killing and touching were one and the same. See "war honors" in the Glossary for more details.

"the second oldest married her" — it is interesting that this implies that the brothers were asked in reverse order of seniority. Kųnų had already married, so he was not asked.

"to capture eight people" — this number represents twice four (see above). Four is the number of wholeness and more fundamentally, the number of the quarters of space. Eight is also the conventional number of Great Spirits (Waxopini Xetera), although only Redhorn makes this list out of those participating in the warpath. It is possible to contrive a list of the Hocąk clans that numbers eight:

Bird Clan
Buffalo Clan
Waterspirit Clan
Bear Clan
Wolf Clan
Elk-Deer Clan
Fish Clan
Snake Clan

So this amounts to one captive for each of the clans thus counted.

"teasing" — this is blatant courting behavior which might conventionally be considered shameless.

"he never paid any attention to them" — not marrying and sexual disinterest are considered signs of holiness. However, in this case it might indicate more his extreme youth. Being a prodigy is itself, of course, a sign of holiness as well.

Links: Redhorn, The Redhorn Cycle, The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave. An American Star Map, The Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle, Storms as He Walks, Otters, Wolf & Dog Spirits, Thunderbirds.

Links within the Redhorn Cycle: §1. The Race for the Chief's Daughter, §3. Redhorn and His Brothers Marry.

Stories: mentioning Redhorn: The Redhorn Cycle, Redhorn's Sons, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Redhorn's Father, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Morning Star and His Friend, The Spirit of Gambling, The Green Man, The Hocągara Contest the Giants, cp. The Cosmic Ages of the Hocągara, Heroka, Redman; featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Redhorn's Sons, Turtle and the Witches, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hocąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Nannyberry Picker, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hocągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧábᵉra, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hocąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Black Otter's Warpath, Aracgéga's Blessings, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Ciwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; featuring Otter as a character: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Įcorúšika and His Brothers, Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning otters: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Fleetfooted Man, The Dipper, The Two Children, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Kųnų's Warpath, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, The Woman who Loved Her Half Brother, The Chief of the Heroka, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Wojijé, Holy Song II, Morning Star and His Friend, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Story of the Medicine Rite; with Storms as He Walks as a character: Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, Redhorn Contest the Giants, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; having Wolf as a character: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, Redhorn's Sons, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Morning Star and His Friend, The Healing Blessing, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́cĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Cap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hocąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Black Otter's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed); mentioning caves: Big Eagle Cave Mystery, Blue Mounds Cave, Silver Mound Cave, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Woman Who Married a Snake, Little Human Head, The Waterspirit of Sugar Loaf Mounds, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, A Giant Visits His Daughter, Soft Shelled Turtle Weds, The Story of the Medicine Rite.

Themes: an inanimate object expands upon command: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Wojijé, The Raccoon Coat, The Elk's Skull, A Mink Tricks Trickster; a spirit makes his dish grow larger: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; a sacrificial meal ("Fast Eating Contest") whose object is to insure that none of the enemy will escape alive: Turtle's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons; a hero wins a girl but decides to let one of his brothers marry her: The Raccoon Coat, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Seduction of Redhorn's Sons; walking like the Thunders: The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hocągara; Storms as He Walks leads scouts by walking in the air: The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; a warleader asks his followers for scalps and appoints two men for a special mission: The Moiety Origin Myth, cf. The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; newlyweds are attacked by enemies: Kųnų's Warpath.


a Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 118-121.

b Jasper Blowsnake and Paul Radin, "A Semi-Historical Account of the War of the Winnebago and the Foxes," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1914) 62:192-207. Told by Jasper Blowsnake in June, 1908. This is reprinted in Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 11-17. An untranslated and untransliterated syllabic text is found in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago V, #17: 1-34.

c Blowsnake and Radin, Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 196 nt. 9.